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South Estonian
South Estonian
South Estonian
is spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, encompassing the Tartu, Mulgi, Võro and Seto varieties. There is no academic consensus on its status, as some linguists consider South Estonian
South Estonian
a dialect of Estonian[2][3][4][5] whereas other linguists consider South Estonian an independent Finnic language.[6][7] South Estonian
South Estonian
is largely mutually intelligible with modern standard Estonian,[citation needed] although diachronically North and South Estonian
South Estonian
are separate branches of the Finnic languages.[3][8] Modern standard Estonian has evolved on the basis of the dialects of Northern Estonia. However, in the 17th to 19th century in Southern Estonia
Estonia
literature was published in a standardized form of Southern Tartu and Northern Võro
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Baltic States
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics
Baltics
(Estonian: Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Latvian: Baltijas valstis, Lithuanian: Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe
Europe
on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The term is not used in the context of cultural areas, national identity or language. The three countries cooperate on a regional level in several intergovernmental organizations.[citation needed] All three countries are members of the European Union, NATO
NATO
and the Eurozone. They are classified as high-income economies by the World Bank and maintain high Human Development Index
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Consonant Cluster
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits. Some linguists[who?] argue that the term can only be properly applied to those consonant clusters that occur within one syllable. Others contend that the concept is more useful when it includes consonant sequences across syllable boundaries. According to the former definition, the longest consonant clusters in the word extra would be /ks/ and /tr/,[1] whereas the latter allows /kstr/.Contents1 Phonotactics 2 Loanwords 3 English 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPhonotactics[edit] Languages' phonotactics differ as to what consonant clusters they permit. Many languages are more restrictive than English in terms of consonant clusters. Many languages forbid consonant clusters entirely
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Akkala Sami Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Russian Sign Language
Russian Sign Language is the sign language of the Deaf
Deaf
community in Russia. It has a grammar unlike the (spoken or written) Russian language, with much stricter word order and word formation rules. Russian Sign Language belongs to the French Sign Language
French Sign Language
family. Vocabulary from Austrian Sign Language also heavily influences Russian Sign Language. Russian Sign Language (РЖЯ) has its own grammar and is used by Deaf Russians in everyday communication
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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John Benjamins Publishing Company
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.[1] The company was founded in the 1960s by John and Claire Benjamins and is currently managed by their daughter Seline Benjamins. Its North American office is in Philadelphia.[2] John Benjamins is especially noted for its publications in language, linguistics and area studies. It publishes books, as well as a number of academic journals and yearbooks, including Archiv Orientální, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, Language
Language
Problems and Language
Language
Planning, Studies in Language
Language
and Lingvisticae Investigationes. References[edit]^ " Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(main office)". John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved on November 19, 2011
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Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
(UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot
Palais de Chaillot
in Paris, France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, and other laws
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Lord's Prayer
The Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
(also called the Our Father or Pater Noster, among other names) is a venerated Christian prayer
Christian prayer
that, according to the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
taught as the way to pray.[1] Two versions of this prayer are recorded: the long form in the Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
in the middle of the Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount, and the short form in the Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'"[2] The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the other four are related to human needs and concerns. The Matthew account alone includes the "Your will be done" and the "Rescue us from the evil one" (or "Deliver us from evil") petitions
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Isogloss
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel letter, the meaning of a word, or the use of some syntactic feature. Major dialects are typically demarcated by groups of isoglosses, such as the Benrath line
Benrath line
that distinguishes High German from the other West Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
and the La Spezia–Rimini Line that divides the Northern Italian dialects from Central Italian dialects. However, an individual isogloss may or may not have any coincidence with a language border. For example, the front-rounding of /y/ cuts across France and Germany, while the /y/ is absent from Italian and Spanish words that are cognates with the /y/-containing French words. One of the best-known isoglosses is the centum-satem isogloss. Similar to an isogloss, an isograph is a distinguishing feature of a writing system
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