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Soudines
SUDINES (or SOUDINES) (Greek: Σουδινες) (fl. c. 240 BC): Babylonian sage. He is mentioned as one of the famous Chaldean mathematicians and astronomer -astrologers by later Roman writers like Strabo
Strabo
(Geografia 16:1–6). Like his predecessor Berossos , he moved from Babylonia
Babylonia
and established himself among the Greeks
Greeks
; he was an advisor to King Attalus I (Attalos Soter) of Pergamon
Pergamon
. He is said (e.g. by Roman astronomer/astrologer Vettius Valens) to have published tables to compute the motion of the Moon
Moon
; said to have been used by the Greeks, until superseded by the work of Hipparchus
Hipparchus
and later by Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaios)
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Hipparchus
HIPPARCHUS OF NICAEA (/hɪˈpɑːrkəs/ ; Greek : Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos; c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomer , geographer , and mathematician . He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes . Hipparchus
Hipparchus
was born in Nicaea , Bithynia (now Iznik , Turkey
Turkey
), and probably died on the island of Rhodes
Rhodes
. He is known to have been a working astronomer at least from 162 to 127 BC. Hipparchus
Hipparchus
is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity . He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun
Sun
and Moon survive
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Pergamon
PERGAMON /ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/ or PERGAMUM /ˈpɜːrɡəməm/ ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος) was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis . It is located 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay ) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama
Bergama
. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar
Pergamon Altar
. It became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
under the Attalid dynasty
Attalid dynasty
in 281–133 BC
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Ptolemy
CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (/ˈtɒləmi/ ; Greek : Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos ; Latin : Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170) was a mathematician , astronomer , geographer , astrologer , and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology . He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt
Egypt
, wrote in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, and held Roman citizenship . Beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in an uncorroborated statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes . This is a very late attestation, however, and there is no other reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria, where he died around AD 168
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Astronomical
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomy
Astronomy
is the oldest of the natural sciences
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Gemstone
A GEMSTONE (also called a GEM, FINE GEM, JEWEL, PRECIOUS STONE or SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. However, certain rocks (such as lapis lazuli ) or organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber , jet , and pearl ) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings , such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem maker is called a lapidary or gemcutter ; a diamond worker is a diamantaire . The carvings of Carl Fabergé are significant works in this tradition
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Astrology
Expand list for reference ------------------------- ▼ Astrology
Astrology
Astrology
Astrology
images ► Astrology
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Floruit
FLORUIT (/ˈflɔːr(j)uɪt, ˈflɒr-/ ), abbreviated FL. (or occasionally, FLOR.), Latin
Latin
for 'he/she flourished', denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone "flourished". ETYMOLOGY AND USE Latin
Latin
: flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin
Latin
verb flōreō, flōrēre 'to bloom, flower, or flourish', from the noun flōs, flōris, 'a flower'. Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when he or she was alive
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Attalus I
ATTALUS or ATTALOS may refer to: PEOPLE* Several members of the Attalid dynasty
Attalid dynasty
of Pergamon * Attalus I , ruled 241 BC–197 BC * Attalus II Philadelphus , ruled 160 BC–138 BC * Attalus III , ruled 138 BC–133 BC * Attalus, father of Philetaerus
Philetaerus
of founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon * Attalus, father of Attalus I of Pergamon * Attalus (general) (390–336 BC), courtier and general of Philip II of Macedonia * Attalus (son of Andromenes) (fl. 330–317 BC), general of Alexander the Great and Perdiccas * Attalus of Rhodes (fl. 2nd century BC), astronomer, contemporary of Hipparchus * Attalus (Stoic) (fl. 25 AD), Stoic philosopher and teacher of Seneca * Priscus Attalus (fl
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Babylonian Mathematics
BABYLONIAN MATHEMATICS (also known as Assyro- Babylonian mathematics
Babylonian mathematics
) was any mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC. Babylonian mathematical texts are plentiful and well edited. In respect of time they fall in two distinct groups: one from the Old Babylonian period (1830–1531 BC), the other mainly Seleucid from the last three or four centuries BC. In respect of content there is scarcely any difference between the two groups of texts. Thus Babylonian mathematics
Babylonian mathematics
remained constant, in character and content, for nearly two millennia
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Chaldea
CHALDEA (/kælˈdiːə/ ) or CHALDAEA was a Semitic -speaking nation which existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia
Babylonia
. It was located in the marshy land of the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia and briefly came to rule Babylon
Babylon
. During a period of weakness in the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Babylonia, new tribes of West Semitic -speaking migrants arrived in the region from the Levant
Levant
between the 11th and 9th centuries BC. The earliest waves consisted of Suteans and Arameans , followed a century or so later by the Kaldu, a group who became known later as the Chaldeans or the Chaldees
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Babylonia
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian
Akkadian
-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq
Iraq
). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon
Babylon
. Babylon
Babylon
greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called Māt Akkadī "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian
Akkadian
language
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Babylonian Astronomy
According to Asger Aaboe , the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia , and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descendants in direct line from the work of the late Babylonian astronomers. Modern knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, via the earliest Babylonian star catalogues dating from about 1200 BC. The fact that many star names appear in Sumerian suggests a continuity reaching into the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system —known as cuneiform —around 3500–3200 BC. The Sumerians developed a form of astronomy that had an important influence on the sophisticated astronomy of the Babylonians. Astrolatry , which gave planetary gods an important role in Mesopotamian mythology and religion , began with the Sumerians
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Babylonian Astrology
In Babylon
Babylon
as well as in Assyria
Assyria
as a direct offshoot of Babylonian culture, astrology takes its place as one of the two chief means at the disposal of the priests (who were called bare or "inspectors") for ascertaining the will and intention of the gods , the other being through the inspection of the livers of sacrificial animals (see omen ). CONTENTS * 1 Early origins * 2 Divinatory basis * 3 Planets
Planets
and gods * 4 System of Interpretation * 5 Limits of early knowledge * 5.1 General nature * 5.2 Astronomical expertise * 5.3 Constellations * 6 Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources EARLY ORIGINSBABYLONIAN ASTROLOGY was the first organized system of astrology, arising in the second millennium BC
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