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Song Of The Plough
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both /plaʊ/) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as horses or cattle, but in modern times are drawn by tractors. A plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the earth. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, although written references to the plough do not appear in English until c. 1100 at which point it is referenced frequently. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops and allowing them to break down. As the plough is drawn through the soil it creates long trenches of fertile soil called furrows
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Edward Chester Plow
Edward Chester Plow, CBE DSO CD (September 28, 1904 – April 25, 1988) was a Canadian soldier and the 22nd Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Education[edit] Born in St. Albans, Vermont, he was educated at Lower Canada
Canada
College and then entered the Royal Military College of Canada
Canada
in 1921, student # 1649. Career[edit] He was commissioned in the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
in 1925. He served in Canada
Canada
and England before World War II
World War II
began. During World War II, he commanded the artillery of the 1st Canadian Corps
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Old High German
Old High German
Old High German
(OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Gothic Language
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language
Germanic language
that was spoken by the Goths. It is known primarily from the Codex Argenteus, a sixth-century copy of a fourth-century Bible
Bible
translation, and is the only East Germanic language
Germanic language
with a sizable text corpus. All others, including Burgundian and Vandalic, are known, if at all, only from proper names that survived in historical accounts, and from loanwords in other languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, and French. As a Germanic language, Gothic is a part of the Indo-European language family. It is the earliest Germanic language
Germanic language
that is attested in any sizable texts, but it lacks any modern descendants. The oldest documents in Gothic date back to the fourth century
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Ard (plough)
The ard, ard plough,[1] or scratch plough[2] is a simple light plough without a mouldboard. It is symmetrical on either side of its line of draft and is fitted with a symmetrical share that traces a shallow furrow but does not invert the soil.[3] It began to be replaced in most of Europe by the carruca turnplough from the 7th century. In its simplest form it resembles a hoe, consisting of a draft-pole (either composite or a single piece) pierced with a nearly vertical, wooden, spiked head (or stock) which is dragged through the soil by draft animals and very rarely by people. The ard-head is at one end a stilt (handle) for steering and at the other a share (cutting blade) which gouges the surface ground. More sophisticated models have a composite pole, where the section attached to the head is called the draft-beam, and the share may be made of stone or iron. Some have a cross-bar for handles or two separate stilts for handles (two-handled ard)
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Italic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Raetic
Rhaetian /ˈriːʃən/ or Rhaetic (Raetic) /ˈriːtɪk/ was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia
Rhaetia
in the Eastern Alps
Eastern Alps
in pre-Roman and Roman times. It is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions (found through Northern Italy, Southern Germany, Eastern Switzerland, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Western Austria)[3] in two variants of the Etruscan alphabet. The ancient Rhaetic language is not the same as one of the modern Romance languages
Romance languages
of the same Alpine region, known as Rhaeto-Romance, but both are sometimes referred to as "Rhaetian".Contents1 Classification 2 History 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksClassification[edit] Based on its handful of surviving inscriptions, whether Rhaetic was an Indo-European language
Indo-European language
or not continues to be argued
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Natural History (Pliny)
Pliny's Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin
Latin
by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life".[2] It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia. The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Welsh Language
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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