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Sonchus
Sonchus
Sonchus
is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family.[2][4] Most of the species are annual herbs, a few are perennial, and a few are even woody (subgenus Dendrosonchus, restricted to the Canary Islands).[5][6][7][8][9] Annual herbs in the genus are known as sow thistles (less commonly hare thistles or hare lettuces). The genus is named after the Ancient Greek for such plants. All are characterized by soft, somewhat irregularly lobed leaves that clasp the stem and, at least initially, form a basal rosette. The stem contains a milky latex. Flower
Flower
heads are yellow and range in size from half to one inch in diameter; the florets are all of ray type
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Rabbit
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae
Leporidae
of the order Lagomorpha
Lagomorpha
(along with the hare and the pika). Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit
European rabbit
species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds[1] of domestic rabbit. Sylvilagus
Sylvilagus
includes thirteen wild rabbit species, among them the seven types of cottontail. The European rabbit, which has been introduced on every continent except Antartica, is familiar throughout the world as a wild prey animal and as a domesticated form of livestock and pet
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Bitter (taste)
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation[1] is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system. Taste
Taste
is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. Taste, along with smell (olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis.[2][3] The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. The tongue is covered with thousands of small bumps called papillae, which are visible to the naked eye. Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds.[4] The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds
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Lettuce
Lettuce
Lettuce
( Lactuca
Lactuca
sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce
Lettuce
is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled.[3] One variety, the woju (莴苣), or asparagus lettuce (celtuce), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption
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New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
(/njuːˈziːlənd/ ( listen); Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island
South Island
(Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand
New Zealand
is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia
Australia
across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Māori People
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation. Collectively, for example, the contemporary Frisians
Frisians
and Danes
Danes
are two related Germanic peoples, while various Middle Eastern ethnic groups are often linguistically categorized as Semitic peoples.Contents1 In politics 2 In law 3 See also 4 ReferencesIn politics Main article: Commoner Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People
by Eugène DelacroixVarious states govern, or claim to govern, in the name of the people. Both the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
used the Latin
Latin
term Senatus Populusque Romanus, (the Senate and People
People
of Rome)
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Chard
Chard
Chard
or Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris
subsp. vulgaris, Cicla-Group and Flavescens-Group) (/tʃɑːrd/) is a green leafy vegetable that can be used in Mediterranean cooking
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Noxious Weed
A noxious weed, harmful weed or injurious weed is a weed that has been designated by an agricultural authority as one that is injurious to agricultural or horticultural crops, natural habitats or ecosystems, or humans or livestock. Most noxious weeds have been introduced into an ecosystem by ignorance, mismanagement, or accident. Some noxious weeds are native. Typically they are plants that grow aggressively, multiply quickly without natural controls (native herbivores, soil chemistry, etc.), and display adverse effects through contact or ingestion. Noxious weeds are a large problem in many parts of the world, greatly affecting areas of agriculture, forest management, nature reserves, parks and other open space.[1] These weeds are typically agricultural pests, though many also have impacts on natural areas
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Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Milk Thistle
Carduus marianus L. Silybum
Silybum
marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle,[1] blessed milkthistle,[2] Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary's thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. This species is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
family. This fairly typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world.Contents1 Description 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Chemistry 4 Research4.1 Toxicity5 Use as food 6 Animal toxicity 7 References 8 Further readingDescription[edit]IllustrationMilk thistles can grow to be 30 to 200 cm (12 to 79 in) tall, and have an overall conical shape. The approximate maximum base diameter is 160 cm (63 in). The stem is grooved and more or less cottony
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Soil
Soil
Soil
is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.[1] The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone
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Fallow
Crop
Crop
rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield. Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row (Monocropping) disproportionately depletes the soil of certain nutrients. With rotation, a crop that leaches the soil of one kind of nutrient is followed during the next growing season by a dissimilar crop that returns that nutrient to the soil or draws a different ratio of nutrients
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