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Somali Democratic Republic
The Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
(Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, Arabic: الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية‎ al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Italian: Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist government of former President of Somalia
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Flag Of Somalia
The Flag
Flag
of Somalia
Somalia
(Somali: Calanka Soomaaliya, Arabic: علم الصومال‎), also known as the Somali Flag, is the official flag of the Federal Republic of Somalia. Adopted on October 12, 1954, it was designed by Mohammed Awale Liban. The flag was used for the nascent Somali Republic. It was originally conceived and serves as the flag for the Somali people.[1]Contents1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Construction 4 Historical flags 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] The flag of Somalia
Somalia
was created in 1954 during the transitional trusteeship period of the nation's history
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Laas Gaal
Laas Geel
Laas Geel
(Somali: Laas Geel), also spelled Laas Gaal, are cave formations on the rural outskirts of Hargeisa, Somaliland. They contain some of the earliest known cave paintings in the Horn of Africa. Laas Geel's rock art is estimated to date to somewhere between 9,000 and 3,000 years BC.Contents1 Discovery 2 Description 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External linksDiscovery[edit] Laas Geel
Laas Geel
rock exteriorDuring November and December 2002, an archaeological survey was carried out in Somaliland
Somaliland
by a French team of researchers. The expedition's objective was to search for rock shelters and caves, that contain archaeological sediments and infills in order to document the historical period when production economy appeared in this part of the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
(circa 5,000 to 2,000 years BC)
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Somali Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Coat Of Arms Of Somalia
The coat of arms of Somalia
Somalia
were adopted on October 10, 1956. The leopards which support the shield and the white star were also found on the coat of arms used in Italian Somaliland. Formerly, the arms of Somalia
Somalia
from June 8, 1919 featured a shield divided horizontally by a wavy white line (Smith, 1980)
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Marxism–Leninism
In political science, Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(CPSU), of the Communist International, and of Stalinist political parties.[1][2] The purpose of Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the revolutionary development of a bourgeois state into a socialist state, realised through the leadership of a party vanguard, composed of professional revolutionaries from the working class
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Somali: Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, Arabic: عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي‎) (June 8, 1919[2][4][5] – October 15, 1969) was Prime Minister of Somalia
Prime Minister of Somalia
from July 12, 1960, to June 14, 1964, and President of Somalia
President of Somalia
from June 10, 1967, until his assassination on October 15, 1969.[1] He was the father of Somali Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke.Contents1 Early years 2 Political career 3 Assassination 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly years[edit] Sharmarke was born in 1919 in the town of Harardhere
Harardhere
in the north-central Mudug
Mudug
region of Somalia.[2][6] His family hailed from the Majeerteen
Majeerteen
clan.[7] Raised in Mogadishu, Sharmarke attended Qur'anic schools and completed his elementary education in 1936
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Nicolae Ceauşescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
(Romanian: [nikoˈla.e t͡ʃe̯a.uˈʃesku] ( listen); 26 January 1918[1][2] – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician. He was the general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party
Romanian Communist Party
from 1965 to 1989, and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution
Romanian Revolution
in 1989. Born in 1918 in Scornicești, Olt County, Ceaușescu was a member of the Romanian Communist youth movement
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Land Of Punt
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene[2] by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, blackwood, ebony, ivory, and wild animals. The region is known from ancient Egyptian records of trade expeditions to it.[3] It is possible that it corresponds to Opone
Opone
as later known by the ancient Greeks,[4][5][6] while some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put.[7] At times Punt is referred to as Ta netjer, the "Land of the God".[8] The exact location of Punt is still debated by historians
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Dhambalin
Dhambalin ("half, vertically cut mountain") is an archaeological site in the northwestern Togdheer
Togdheer
province of Somaliland. The sandstone rock shelter, contains rock art depicting various animals, such as horned cattle and goats, as well as giraffes, an animal no longer found in Somaliland
Somaliland
region.[1] The site also features the earliest known pictures of sheep in Somaliland
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Macrobians
The Macrobians (Μακροβίοι), meaning long-lived, were a legendary tribe of Aethiopia
Aethiopia
and kingdom positioned in the farthest land towards the western sunset south of ancient Libya (Africa).[1] According to Herodotus
Herodotus
they dwelt geographically along the sea south of Libya on the Atlantic.[2] This Libya was far south of the Pillars of Hercules and Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
along the Atlantic coast, while the northern Libyan sea coast was the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that stretched from Egypt to Morocco
Morocco
in an east to west direction.[3] Concerning the southern sea, Herodotus
Herodotus
places the Persians east of the southern sea in Asia, the Arabians & East Africans south of the sea in Arabia and the Macrobians west of the southern Sea in Libya
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Barbara (region)
Barbara, also referred to as Barbaria, referred to two ancient regions in littoral Northeast Africa. The two areas were inhabited by the Eastern Barbaroi
Barbaroi
or Baribah (Berbers) as referred to by ancient Greek philosophers. These inhabitants were the ancestors of today's Somali people who used to border the Axumites in the north and border the Azanians in the south.[1][2][3][4] Geographers historically divided the eastern coast of Africa
Africa
at large into several regions based on each region's respective inhabitants
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Azania
Azania (Ancient Greek: Ἀζανία) is a name that has been applied to various parts of southeastern tropical Africa.[1] In the Roman period and perhaps earlier, the toponym referred to a portion of the Southeast Africa
Africa
coast extending from Kenya,[2] to perhaps as far south as Tanzania. This area was inhabited by Southern Cushitic-speaking populations until the wave of Bantu expansion.[3]Contents1 Ancient Azania 2 See also 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External linksAncient Azania[edit] Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
mentions an "Azanian Sea" (N.H. 6.34) that began around the emporium of Adulis
Adulis
and stretched around the south coast of Africa. The 1st century AD Greek travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea first describes Azania based on its author's intimate knowledge of the area
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Ifat Sultanate
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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