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Solubilization
MICELLAR SOLUBILIZATION (SOLUBILIZATION) is the process of incorporating the solubilizate (the component that undergoes solublization) into or onto micelles . Solublization may occur in a system consisting of a solvent , an association colloid (a colloid that forms micelles), and at least one other solubilizate. CONTENTS * 1 Usage of the term * 2 Application * 3 Mechanism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links USAGE OF THE TERMSolubilization is distinct from dissolution because the resulting fluid is a colloidal dispersion involving an association colloid. This suspension is distinct from a true solution , and the amount of the solubilizate in the micellar system can be different (often higher) than the regular solubility of the solubilizate in the solvent
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Washing
WASHING is a method of cleaning , usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent . Washing
Washing
both body and clothing is an essential part of good hygiene and health. Often people use soaps and detergents to assist in the emulsification of oils and dirt particles so they can be washed away. The soap can be applied directly, or with the aid of a washcloth . People wash themselves, or bathe periodically. Infants, the sick, and people with disabilities are bathed by a caregiver , but those that can wash themselves often do so. Often a shower or a bathtub is used for washing. People bathe naked under most circumstances, and commonly do so in the privacy of their home. In Europe
Europe
, some people use a bidet to wash their external genitalia and the anal region after using the toilet , in addition to using toilet paper . More frequent is washing of just the hands , e.g
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Micelle
MICELLE (POLYMERS): Organized auto-assembly formed in a liquid and composed of amphiphilic macromolecules, in general amphiphilic di- or tri-block copolymers made of solvophilic and solvophobic blocks. Note 1: An amphiphilic behavior can be observed for water and an organic solvent or between two organic solvents. Note 2: Polymeric micelles have a much lower critical micellar concentration (CMC) than soap or surfactant micelles, but are nevertheless at equilibrium with isolated macromolecules called unimers. Therefore, micelle formation and stability are concentration-dependent
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Oil Spill
An OIL SPILL is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution . The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters , but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers , offshore platforms , drilling rigs and wells , as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline , diesel ) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel , or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil . Oil spills penetrate into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water
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Hydrotrope
HYDROTROPE is a compound that solubilises hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions (by means other than micellar solubilization ). Typically, HYDROTROPES consist of a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part (like surfactants ) but the hydrophobic part is generally too small to cause spontaneous self-aggregation. HYDROTROPES do not have a critical concentration above which self-aggregation 'suddenly' starts to occur (as found for micelle - and vesicle -forming surfactants, which have a critical micelle concentration or cmc and a critical vesicle concentration or cvc, respectively). Instead, some hydrotropes aggregate in a step-wise self-aggregation process, gradually increasing aggregation size. However, many HYDROTROPES do not seem to self-aggregate at all, unless a solubilisate has been added. Hydrotropes are in use industrially. Examples of hydrotropes include sodium p-toluenesulfonate and sodium xylene sulfonate
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Leaching (chemistry)
LEACHING is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid , either in nature or through an industrial process . In the chemical processing industry, leaching has a variety of commercial applications, including separation of metal from ore using acid , and sugar from beets using hot water . Another term for this is lixiviation, or the extraction of a soluble particle from its constituent parts . In a typical leaching operation, the solid mixture to be separated consists of particles, inert insoluble carrier A and solute B. The solvent , C, is added to the mixture to selectively dissolve B. The overflow from the stage is free of solids and consists of only solvent C and dissolved B. The underflow consists of slurry of liquid of similar composition in the liquid overflow and solid carrier A. In an ideal leaching equilibrium stage, all the solute is dissolved by the solvent; none of the carrier is dissolved
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Laundry
LAUNDRY is the washing of clothing and linens . Laundry
Laundry
processes are often done in a room reserved for that purpose; in an individual home this is referred to as a laundry room or utility room . An apartment building or student hall of residence may have a shared laundry facility such as a tvättstuga . A stand-alone business is referred to as a laundrette (laundromat). The material that is being washed, or has been laundered, is also generally referred to as laundry
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Solution
In chemistry , a SOLUTION is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation . The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case. The concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution
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Colloid
In chemistry , a COLLOID is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid; the term COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). Unlike a solution , whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase , a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension). To qualify as a colloid, the mixture must be one that does not settle or would take a very long time to settle appreciably. The dispersed-phase particles have a diameter between approximately 1 and 1000 nanometers . Such particles are normally easily visible in an optical microscope , although at the smaller size range (r < 250 nm), an ultramicroscope or an electron microscope may be required. Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal foams, colloidal dispersions, or hydrosols. The dispersed-phase particles or droplets are affected largely by the surface chemistry present in the colloid
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Solvent
A SOLVENT (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution . A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid . The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature . Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene ), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene , turpentine ), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone , methyl acetate , ethyl acetate ), in spot removers (e.g. hexane , petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes ) and in perfumes (ethanol ). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical , oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes
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Sedimentation
SEDIMENTATION is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity , centrifugal acceleration , or electromagnetism . In geology, sedimentation is often used as the opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport . In that sense, it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport . Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process. In estuarine environments, settling can be influenced by the presence or absence of vegetation. Trees such as mangroves are crucial to the attenuation of waves or currents, promoting the settlement of suspended particles
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Detergent
A DETERGENT is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions. These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates , a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water , because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent , as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic : partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degrees
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Dispersant
A DISPERSANT or a DISPERSING AGENT or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension , usually a colloid , to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping. Dispersants consist normally of one or more surfactants , but may also be gases . CONTENTS* 1 Application * 1.1 Automotive * 1.2 Bio-dispersing * 1.3 Concrete * 1.4 Detergents * 1.5 Gypsum wallboard * 1.6 Oil drilling * 1.7 Oil spill * 1.8 Process industry * 1.9 Surface coating * 2 See also * 3 References APPLICATIONAUTOMOTIVEAutomotive engine oils contain both detergents and dispersants. Metallic-based detergents prevent the accumulation of varnish like deposits on the cylinder walls and they also neutralize acids. Dispersants keep contaminants in suspension. Dispersants added to gasoline prevent the buildup of gummy residues
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Dissolution (chemistry)
The DISSOLUTION of gases, liquids, or solids into a liquid or other solvent is a process by which these original states become solutes (dissolved components), forming a solution of the gas, liquid, or solid in the original solvent. Solid solutions are the result of dissolution of one solid into another, and occur, e.g., in metal alloys , where their formation is governed and described by the relevant phase diagram . In the case of a crystalline solid dissolving in a liquid, the crystalline structure must be disintegrated such that the separate atoms, ions, or molecules are released. For liquids and gases, the molecules must be able to form non-covalent intermolecular interactions with those of the solvent for a solution to form
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