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Soil Compaction
In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains. When stress is applied that causes densification due to water (or other liquid) being displaced from between the soil grains, then consolidation, not compaction, has occurred. Normally, compaction is the result of heavy machinery compressing the soil, but it can also occur due to the passage of (e.g.) animal feet. In soil science and agronomy, soil compaction is usually a combination of both engineering compaction and consolidation, so may occur due to a lack of water in the soil, the applied stress being internal suction due to water evaporation[1] as well as due to passage of animal feet. Affected soils become less able to absorb rainfall, thus increasing runoff and erosion
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Unit Weight
The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material. The symbol of specific weight is γ (the Greek letter Gamma). A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth
Earth
at 4°C which is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43 lbf/ft3
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Vegetation
Vegetation
Vegetation
is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.[2] It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. It is broader than the term flora which refers to species composition. Perhaps the closest synonym is plant community, but vegetation can, and often does, refer to a wider range of spatial scales than that term does, including scales as large as the global
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Landfill
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden[1]) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form of waste treatment (although the burial part is modern; historically, refuse was just left in piles or thrown into pits). Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling)
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Earthworks (archaeology)
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil
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Aeration
Aeration
Aeration
(also called aerification) is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.Contents1 Aeration
Aeration
of liquids1.1 Methods 1.2 Uses of aeration of liquids2 Aeration
Aeration
of soil 3 Aeration
Aeration
in food 4 See also 5 References Aeration
Aeration
of liquids[edit] Methods[edit] Aeration
Aeration
of liquids (usually water) is achieved by:passing the liquid through air by means of fountains, cascades, paddle-wheels or cones. passing air through the liquid by means of the Venturi tube, aeration turbines or compressed air which can be combined with diffuser(s) air stone(s), as well as fine bubble diffusers, coarse bubble diffusers or linear aeration tubing
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Rut (roads)
A rut is a depression or groove worn into a road or path by the travel of wheels or skis. Ruts can be formed by wear, as from studded snow tires common in cold climate areas, or they can form through the deformation of the asphalt concrete pavement or subbase material. Rut-like depressions can be formed on gravel roads by the erosion from flowing water. Ruts prevent rainwater from flowing to the side of the road into ditches or gutters. Rainwater trapped in ruts is a common contributing factor to hydroplaning crashes. Severe ruts can impede steering if a vehicle has difficulty steering out of the rut. If it proves impossible to steer out of a rut, though forward and backward progress can be made by the vehicle, it is referred to as being stuck in the rut. Ruts in gravel roads can be removed by grading the road surface
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Cooper Research Technology
Cooper Research Technology
Cooper Research Technology
Limited (also known as Cooper Technology) is a British manufacturer of high-performance civil engineering materials testing equipment, based in Ripley, Derbyshire, England. The company specialises in the design and manufacture of laboratory testing equipment used for the investigation of the mechanical properties of materials used in road construction
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Incompressible
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric flow) refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel—an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity. An equivalent statement that implies incompressibility is that the divergence of the flow velocity is zero (see the derivation below, which illustrates why these conditions are equivalent). Incompressible flow does not imply that the fluid itself is incompressible
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Hamm AG
Hamm AG
Hamm AG
is a German worldwide manufacturer and marketer of road rollers based in Tirschenreuth, Germany. It is a subsidiary of Wirtgen Group. Brothers Anton and Franz Hamm, who were gunsmiths, founded the company in 1878 to build agricultural equipment. The company built their first diesel-powered road roller in 1911, from a design by a second-generation Hamm, Hans Hamm. This was at a time when most rollers where steam powered. In 1928 the company abandoned all other product lines to concentrate on road rollers
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Backhoe
A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader, the latter forming a 'backhoe loader' (colloquially known as a "JCB" in Ireland and the UK).[1] The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipper-stick, terms derived from steam shovels
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Piezometer
A piezometer is either a device used to measure liquid pressure in a system by measuring the height to which a column of the liquid rises against gravity, or a device which measures the pressure (more precisely, the piezometric head) of groundwater [1] at a specific point. A piezometer is designed to measure static pressures, and thus differs from a pitot tube by not being pointed into the fluid flow. Observation wells give some information on the water level in a formation, but must be read manually. Electrical pressure transducers of several types can be read automatically, making data acquisition more convenient. Groundwater
Groundwater
measurement[edit]Above-ground casing of a piezometerThe first piezometers in geotechnical engineering were open wells or standpipes (sometimes called Casagrande piezometers)[2] installed into an aquifer
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Earthworm
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. An earthworm's digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin. It has a double transport system composed of coelomic fluid that moves within the fluid-filled coelom and a simple, closed blood circulatory system. It has a central and a peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on either side, connected to a nerve cord running back along its length to motor neurons and sensory cells in each segment. Large numbers of chemoreceptors are concentrated near its mouth. Circumferential and longitudinal muscles on the periphery of each segment enable the worm to move
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Vertisols
In both the FAO
FAO
and USDA soil taxonomy, a vertisol (Vertosol[1] in the Australian Soil Classification) is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years. Alternate shrinking and swelling causes self-mulching, where the soil material consistently mixes itself, causing vertisols to have an extremely deep A horizon
A horizon
and no B horizon. (A soil with no B horizon
B horizon
is called an A/C soil). This heaving of the underlying material to the surface often creates a microrelief known as gilgai. Vertisols typically form from highly basic rocks, such as basalt, in climates that are seasonally humid or subject to erratic droughts and floods, or that impeded drainage
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