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Social Movement Theory
SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORY is an interdisciplinary study within the social sciences that generally seeks to explain why social mobilization occurs, the forms under which it manifests, as well as potential social, cultural, and political consequences. CONTENTS * 1 Collective behavior * 2 Relative deprivation * 3 Rational choice * 4 Resource mobilization * 5 Political opportunity/political process * 6 Framing * 7 Social movement
Social movement
impact theory * 8 New social movements * 9 Emerging cultural perspective * 10 References COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR Main article: Collective behavior Sociologists
Sociologists
during the early and middle-1900s thought that movements were random occurrences of individuals who were trying to emotionally react to situations outside their control
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Environmental Sociology
ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIOLOGY is typically defined as the sociological study of societal-environmental interactions, although this definition immediately presents the problem of integrating human cultures with the rest of the environment . Although the focus of the field is the relationship between society and environment in general, environmental sociologists typically place special emphasis on studying the social factors that cause environmental problems, the societal impacts of those problems, and efforts to solve the problems. In addition, considerable attention is paid to the social processes by which certain environmental conditions become socially defined as problems
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Economic Sociology
ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena. The field can be broadly divided into a classical period and a contemporary one, known as "New economic sociology". The classical period was concerned particularly with modernity and its constituent aspects which are rationalisation , secularisation , urbanisation , social stratification , and so on. As sociology arose primarily as a reaction to capitalist modernity, economics played a role in much classic sociological inquiry. The specific term "economic sociology" was first coined by William Stanley Jevons
William Stanley Jevons
in 1879, later to be used in the works of Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
, Max Weber and Georg Simmel between 1890 and 1920
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Sociology Of The Family
SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE FAMILY look at: * demographic characteristics of the family members: family size, age , ethnicity , and gender of the members * social class of the family, the economic level and mobility of the family, the professions of its members, the education levels of the family members * what spheres of life are important in and to the family unit * the effect of social change on the family * the interactions of the family with other social organizations. * diversity of family forms in contemporary societies in relation to ideology , gender differences , and state policies such as those concerned with marriage * interaction between family members within the family. How they rely on one another. How they work together/rely on the work of someone in the family.Examples of specific issues looked at include: * Changing roles of family members. Each member is restricted by the sex roles of the traditional family
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Sociology Of Gender
SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER is a prominent subfield of sociology . Social interaction directly correlated with sociology regarding social structure. One of the most important social structures is status . This is determined based on position that an individual possesses which effects how he/she will be treated by society. One of the most important statuses an individual claims is gender. Public discourse and the academic literature generally use the term gender for the perceived or projected (self-identified ) masculinity or femininity of a person. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 In feminist theory * 3 Other languages * 4 U.S
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Sociology Of Health And Illness
The SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS, alternatively the SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND WELLNESS, examines the interaction between society and health . The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate , and vice versa. This aspect of sociology differs from medical sociology in that this branch of sociology discusses health and illness in relation to social institutions such as family , employment , and school . The sociology of medicine limits its concern to the patient-practitioner relationship and the role of health professionals in society. The sociology of health and illness covers sociological pathology (causes of disease and illness), reasons for seeking particular types of medical aid, and patient compliance or noncompliance with medical regimes. Health, or lack of health, was once merely attributed to biological or natural conditions
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Sociology Of Education
The SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher , further , adult , and continuing education. Education
Education
has often been very much so seen as a fundamentally optimistic human endeavour characterised by aspirations for progress and betterment. It is understood by many to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality , and acquiring wealth and social status . Education
Education
is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potential. It is also perceived as one of the best means of achieving greater social equality
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Demography
DEMOGRAPHY (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement" ) is the statistical study of populations , especially human beings . As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics ). Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth , migration , ageing , and death . Based on the demographic research of the earth, earth's population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population
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Criminology
CRIMINOLOGY (from Latin
Latin
crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia ) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology
Criminology
is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists , psychologists , philosophers , psychiatrists , social anthropologists , as well as scholars of law. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie
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Sociology Of Culture
The SOCIOLOGY OF CULTURE and, the related, cultural sociology concerns the systematic analysis of culture , usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a members of a society, as it is manifested in the society. For Georg Simmel , culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history". Culture
Culture
in the sociological field is analyzed as the ways of thinking and describing, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people's way of life. Contemporary sociologists' approach to culture is often divided between a "sociology of culture" and "cultural sociology" - the terms are similar, though not interchangeable. The sociology of culture is an older concept, and considers some topics and objects as more-or-less "cultural" than others
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Development Theory
DEVELOPMENT THEORY is a conglomeration or a collective vision of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities
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Deviance (sociology)
In sociology , DEVIANCE describes an action or behavior that violates social norms , including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime ), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores ). It is the purview of criminologists , psychiatrists , psychologists , and sociologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time, and how they are enforced. Norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is an absence of conformity to these norms. Social norms differ from culture to culture. For example, a deviant act can be committed in one society that breaks a social norm there, but may be normal for another society
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Industrial Sociology
INDUSTRIAL SOCIOLOGY, until recently a crucial research area within the field of SOCIOLOGY OF WORK, examines "the direction and implications of trends in technological change, globalization , labour markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations to the extent to which these trends are intimately related to changing patterns of inequality in modern societies and to the changing experiences of individuals and families the ways in which workers challenge, resist and make their own contributions to the patterning of work and shaping of work institutions." LABOR PROCESS THEORYOne branch of industrial sociology is Labor process theory (LPT). In 1974, Harry Braverman wrote Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century , which provided a critical analysis of scientific management. This book analyzed capitalist productive relations from a Marxist perspective
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Social Inequality
SOCIAL INEQUALITY occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differentiation preference of access of social goods in the society brought about by power, religion, kinship, prestige, race, ethnicity, gender, age, and class. The social rights include labor market, the source of income, health care, and freedom of speech, education, political representation, and participation. Social inequality
Social inequality
linked to Economic inequality , usually described on the basis of the unequal distribution of income or wealth , is a frequently studied type of social inequality. Though the disciplines of economics and sociology generally use different theoretical approaches to examine and explain economic inequality, both fields are actively involved in researching this inequality
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Sociology Of Race And Ethnic Relations
The SOCIOLOGY OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS is the study of social , political , and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society . This area encompasses the study of racism , residential segregation , and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups. The sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology , as well as with postcolonial theory . At the level of political policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism . Anti-racism forms another style of policy, particularly popular in the 1960s and 1970s. At the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues
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Political Sociology
Contemporary POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY involves, but is not limited to, the study of the relations between state , society , and citizens
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