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Social Democratic Party Of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
Switzerland
(also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; French: Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Italian: Partito Socialista Svizzero; Romansh: Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland. It is represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections. The party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council. It is also the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Calculation In Kind
Calculation in kind
Calculation in kind
or calculation in nature is a way of valuating resources and a system of accounting that uses disaggregated physical magnitudes as opposed to a common unit of calculation. As the basis for a socialist economy it was proposed to replace money and financial calculation.[1] Calculation in kind
Calculation in kind
would value each commodity based only on its use value, for purposes of economic accounting. By contrast, in money-based economies, a commodity's value includes an exchange value. Calculation in kind
Calculation in kind
would quantify the utility of an object directly without recourse to a general unit of calculation
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Capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism
is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.[1][2][3] Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, and competitive markets.[4][5] In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.[6][7] Economists, political economists, sociologists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism and state capitalism
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Socialism
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Red Flag (politics)
In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, and left-wing politics; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1789–99).[1] Socialists
Socialists
adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871. The flags of several communist states, including China, Vietnam and the Soviet Union, are explicitly based on the original red flag. The red flag is also used as a symbol by some democratic socialists and social democrats, for example the League of Social Democrats of Hong Kong, French Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Labour Party in Britain used it until the late 1980s
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History Of Socialism
The history of socialism has its origins in the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789 and the changes which it wrought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. The Communist Manifesto
Communist Manifesto
was written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed "scientific socialism". In the last third of the 19th century, Social Democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism
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Socialist Calculation Debate
The socialist calculation debate (sometimes known as the economic calculation debate) was a discourse on the subject of how a socialist economy would perform economic calculation given the absence of the law of value, money, financial prices for capital goods, and private ownership of the means of production
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Socialist Economics
Socialist
Socialist
economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems. A socialist economic system is characterised by social ownership and operation of the means of production[1][2][3][4][5][6] that may take the form of autonomous cooperatives or direct public ownership wherein production is carried out directly for use. Socialist
Socialist
systems that utilize markets for allocating inputs and capital goods among economic units are designated market socialism
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism. The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning, while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution
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Collective Ownership
Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members.[1][2] The breadth or narrowness of the group can range from a whole society to a set of coworkers in a particular enterprise (such as one collective farm). In the latter (narrower) sense the term is distinguished from common ownership and the commons, which implies open-access, the holding of assets in common, and the negation of ownership. Collective ownership of the means of production is the defining characteristic of socialism,[3] where "collective ownership" can refer to ownership by all of society or to cooperative ownership by an organization's members
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Cooperative
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".[1] Cooperatives may include:non-profit community organizations businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services (a consumer cooperative) organisations managed by the people who work there (worker cooperatives) organisations managed by the people to whom they provide accommodation (housing cooperatives) hybrids such as worker cooperatives that are also consumer cooperatives or credit unions multi-stakeholder cooperatives such as those that bring together civil society and local actors to deliver community needs second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperativesResearch published by the
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Common Ownership
Common ownership
Common ownership
refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members, as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic system
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Commune (model Of Government)
The commune is a model of government that is generally advocated by communists, revolutionary socialists, and anarchists. The model is often characterized as being a local and transparent organization composed of delegates bound by mandates. These delegates would be recallable at any time from their positions
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Economic Democracy
Economic democracy
Economic democracy
is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbors and the broader public. No single definition or approach encompasses economic democracy, but most proponents claim that modern property relations externalize costs, subordinate the general well-being to private profit and deny the polity a democratic voice in economic policy decisions.[1] In addition to these moral concerns, economic democracy makes practical claims, such as that it can compensate for capitalism's inherent effective demand gap.[2] Proponents of economic democracy generally argue that modern capitalism periodically results in economic crises characterized by deficiency of effective demand as society is unable to earn enough income to purchase its output production
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