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Social Darwinism
The term social Darwinism
Darwinism
is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society. The term itself emerged in the 1880s, and it gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these ways of thinking. The majority of those who have been categorized as social Darwinists did not identify themselves by such a label.[1] Scholars debate the extent to which the various Social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues
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Instinct
Instinct
Instinct
or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior. The simplest example of an instinctive behavior is a fixed action pattern (FAP), in which a very short to medium length sequence of actions, without variation, are carried out in response to a clearly defined stimulus.An instinctive behavior of shaking water from wet fur.A baby leatherback turtle makes its way to the open oceanAny behavior is instinctive if it is performed without being based upon prior experience (that is, in the absence of learning), and is therefore an expression of innate biological factors. Sea turtles, newly hatched on a beach, will automatically move toward the ocean. A marsupial climbs into its mother's pouch upon being born. Honeybees communicate by dancing in the direction of a food source without formal instruction
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Recapitulation Theory
The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—often expressed using Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors (phylogeny). It was formulated in the 1820s by Étienne Serres based on the work of Johann Friedrich Meckel, after whom it is also known as Meckel-Serres law
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Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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British Empire
The British Empire
Empire
comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.[1] By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time,[2] and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi),[3] 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area.[4] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck
(1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck (/ləˈmɑːrk/;[1] French: [lamaʁk]), was a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Lamarck
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Malthusian Catastrophe
A Malthusian catastrophe
Malthusian catastrophe
(also known as Malthusian check or Malthusian spectre) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production.Contents1 Thomas Malthus 2 Neo-Malthusian theory 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksThomas Malthus[edit] In 1779, Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
wrote:Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation
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Michael Ruse
Michael Ruse, FRSC (born 21 June 1940) is a philosopher of science who specializes in the philosophy of biology and works on the relationship between science and religion, the creation–evolution controversy, and the demarcation problem within science. Ruse currently teaches at Florida State University.Contents1 Career 2 Personal life 3 Selected works 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Ruse was born in England, attending Bootham School, York.[1] He took his undergraduate degree at the University of Bristol
University of Bristol
(1962), his master's degree at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
(1964), and Ph.D. at the University of Bristol
University of Bristol
(1970). Ruse taught at the University of Guelph
University of Guelph
in Ontario, Canada
Canada
for 35 years
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Social Welfare Provision
Welfare
Welfare
is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for citizens and other eligible residents without sufficient current means to support basic needs. In most developed countries, welfare is mainly provided by the government from tax revenue, and to a lesser extent by NGOs, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. Social security
Social security
expands on this concept, especially in welfare states, by providing all inhabitants with various social services such as universal healthcare, unemployment insurance, student financial aid (in addition to free post-secondary education), and others. In its 1952 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention (nr
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Psychiatric Hospital
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric hospitals vary widely in their size and grading. Some hospitals may specialize only in short-term or outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment
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Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(/ˈɡɜːrtə/;[1][2][3] German: [ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfɡaŋ fɔn ˈɡøːtə] ( listen); 28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Carl August in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther
Werther
(1774). He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement
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Creationism
Creationism
Creationism
is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",[2][3] as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.[4] The first use of the term "creationist" to describe a proponent of creationism is found in an 1856 letter of Charles Darwin describing those who objected on religious grounds to the then emerging science of evolution.[5]
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Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
(/ˈnoʊbɛl/, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛl]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
established the prizes in 1895
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Social Evolution
Social evolution is a subdiscipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviors that have fitness consequences for individuals other than the actor. Social behaviors can be categorized according to the fitness consequences they entail for the actor and recipient.Mutually beneficial – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipient Selfish – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of the actor, but the recipient suffers a loss Altruistic – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of the recipient, but the actor may suffer a loss Spiteful – a behavior that decreases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipientThis classification was proposed by W. D
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University Of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(French: Université de Strasbourg, Unistra or UDS) in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, which was founded in 1538, and was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch
Marc Bloch
University, and Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg
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Popular Science
Popular science
Popular science
(also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience. While science journalism focuses on recent scientific developments, popular science is more broad-ranging. It may be written by professional science journalists or by scientists themselves. It is presented in many forms, including books, film and television documentaries, magazine articles, and web pages.Contents1 Role 2 Common threads 3 Notable English-language popularizers of science 4 Some sources of popular science 5 Science
Science
media5.1 Science
Science
in the headlines 5.2 News online 5.3 Press6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 BibliographyRole[edit] Popular science
Popular science
is a bridge between scientific literature as a professional medium of scientific research, and the realms of popular political and cultural discourse
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