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Social Innovation
Social
Social
innovations are new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet the social needs of different elements which can be from working conditions and education to community development and health — they extend and strengthen civil society
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Strategies
Strategy
Strategy
(from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship"[1]) is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the "art of the general", which included several subsets of skills including "tactics", siegecraft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century CE in East Roman terminology, and was translated into Western vernacular languages only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word "strategy" came to denote "a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills" in a military conflict, in which both adversaries interact.[2] Strategy
Strategy
is important because the resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited
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Social Change
Social change
Social change
is an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change
Social change
may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, or social relations.Contents1 Definition 2 Prominent theories 3 Current social changes3.1 Global demographic shifts 3.2 Gendered patterns of work and care4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDefinition[edit] Social change
Social change
may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement
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Pierre Rosanvallon
Pierre Rosanvallon
Pierre Rosanvallon
(born 1 January 1948, Blois) is a French intellectual and historian, named professor at the Collège de France in 2001. He holds there the chair in modern and contemporary political history. His works are dedicated to the history of democracy, French political history, the role of the state, and the question of social justice in contemporary societies. He is also director of studies at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales, where he led the Raymond Aron
Raymond Aron
Centre of Political Researches between 1992 and 2005. Rosanvallon was in the 1970s one of the primary theoreticians of workers' self-management in the French Democratic Confederation of Labour (CDFT) trade union. He graduated from the Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC) management school with a PhD
PhD
from the École des hautes études en sciences sociales
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Jacques Fournier
Pope
Pope
Benedict XII (Latin: Benedictus XII; 1285 – 25 April 1342), born Jacme Fornier,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 30 December 1334[2] to his death in April 1342.[3] He was the third Avignon
Avignon
Pope. Benedict was a careful pope who reformed monastic orders and opposed nepotism. Unable to remove his capital to Rome
Rome
or Bologna, he started the great palace at Avignon. He decided against a notion of Pope
Pope
John XXII
John XXII
by saying that souls may attain the "fulness of the beatific vision" before the last judgment.[4] He tried unsuccessfully to reunite the Greek and Roman churches
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Jacques Attali
Jacques Attali
Jacques Attali
(French: [ʒak atali]; born 1 November 1943) is a French economic and social theorist, writer, political adviser and senior civil servant, who served as a counselor to President François Mitterrand from 1981 to 1991 and was the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 1991-1993. In 1997, upon the request of education minister Claude Allègre, he proposed a reform of the higher education degrees system. In 2008-2010, he led the government committee on how to ignite the growth of the French economy, under President Nicolas Sarkozy. Attali co-founded the European program EUREKA, dedicated to the development of new technologies. He also founded the non-profit organization PlaNet Finance
PlaNet Finance
and is the head of Attali & Associates (A&A), an international consultancy firm on strategy, corporate finance and venture capital
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Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
FRS FRSE (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705][1] – April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions.[2] He founded many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.[3] Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies
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Reform
Reform
Reform
(Latin: reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.[1] The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill’s Association movement which identified “Parliamentary Reform” as its primary aim.[2] Reform
Reform
is generally distinguished from revolution. The latter means basic or radical change; whereas reform may be no more than fine tuning, or at most redressing serious wrongs without altering the fundamentals of the system. Reform
Reform
seeks to improve the system as it stands, never to overthrow it wholesale
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Robert Owen
Robert Owen
Robert Owen
(/ˈoʊən/; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen is best known for his efforts to improve the working conditions of his factory workers and his promotion of experimental socialistic communities. In the early 1800s Owen became wealthy as an investor and eventual manager of a large textile mill at New Lanark, Scotland. (He initially trained as a draper in Stamford, Lincolnshire, and worked in London, England, before relocating to Manchester
Manchester
in the 1780s and going into business as a textile manufacturer.) In 1824 Owen travelled to America, where he invested the bulk of his fortune in an experimental socialistic community at New Harmony, Indiana, the preliminary model for Owen's utopian society. The experiment was short-lived, lasting about two years
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Karl Marx
Karl Marx[note 1] (German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks];[14][15] 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university. He married Jenny von Westphalen
Jenny von Westphalen
in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London
London
for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital
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Max Weber
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (/ˈveɪbər/;[4] German: [ˈmaks ˈveːbɐ]; 21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist. His ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research.[5] Weber is often cited, with Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
and Karl Marx, as among the three founders of sociology.[6][7][8][9][10] Weber was a key proponent of methodological antipositivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive (rather than purely empiricist) means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions
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Émile Durkheim
David Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
(French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm];[1] April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.[2][3] Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society
The Division of Labour in Society
(1893)
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Joseph Schumpeter
Joseph Aloïs Schumpeter (German: [ˈʃʊmpeːtɐ]; 8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950)[3] was an Austrian political economist. Born in Moravia, he briefly served as Finance Minister of Austria
Austria
in 1919. In 1932, he became a professor at Harvard
Harvard
University where he remained until the end of his career, eventually obtaining U.S
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Concept
Concepts are the fundamental building blocks of our thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition.[1][2]When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking.Concepts arise as abstractions or generalisations from experience; from the result of a transformation of existing ideas; or from innate properties.[3][unreliable source?] A concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts
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Creative Destruction
Creative destruction
Creative destruction
(German: schöpferische Zerstörung), sometimes known as Schumpeter's gale, is a concept in economics which since the 1950s has become most readily identified with the Austrian-American economist Joseph Schumpeter[1] who derived it from the work of Karl Marx and popularized it as a theory of economic innovation and the business cycle. According to Schumpeter, the "gale of creative destruction" describes the "process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old
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Social Capital
Social capital
Social capital
is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good. The term generally refers to (a) resources, and the value of these resources, both tangible (public spaces, private property) and intangible ("actors", "human capital", people), (b) the relationships among these resources, and (c) the impact that these relationships have on the resources involved in each relationship, and on larger groups
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