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Sobral Fault
The Sobral fault is a major fault in the Borborema geological province of northeastern Brazil, a part of the Transbrasiliano lineament. It is commonly correlated with the Kandi fault in Benin, east of the West African craton.[1] The fault lies in the northwest of Ceará
Ceará
state. It appears to have formed late in the orogeny when the West African craton engaged with the Congo craton, and to have allowed significant dextral strike-slip movement. It was reactivated when South America was breaking away from Africa.[2] In this later phase, a sinistral shear movement of about 100 km seems to have taken place during and after the break-up.[3] References[edit]^ Robert J. Pankhurst (2008). West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region. Geological Society. p. 93. ISBN 1-86239-247-1.  ^ R. CABYl, A. N. SIAL2, M. ARTHAUD3,and A. VAUCHE (1991)
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Brazil
Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese) (English: "Order and Progress")Anthem: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")Flag anthem: Hino à Bandeira Nacional[1] (English: "National Flag Anthem")National sealSelo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of BrazilLocation of  Brazil  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Br
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Cochabamba Fault Zone
The Cochabamba Fault Zone or Cochabamba Shear Zone is an east-southeast trending zone of sinistral strike-slip faults near the city of Cochabamba in the Bolivian Andes. The movements along Cochabamba Fault Zone are related to the bend in the Andes from running in a north-west direction to a north-south direction at this latitude
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Sao Francisco Craton
The São Francisco Craton is an ancient craton located in the eastern part of South America. The craton outcrops in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. It includes a number of different blocks of the Archean basement, separated by orogenic belts. The belts are characterized by sedimentary basins and passive continental margins containing granite intrusions. The Paleoproterozoic (about 2.5 to 2.0 Ga) was the source of orogenic belts and the current configuration of the craton. The São Francisco Craton around 1.0 Ga ago was located in the south of the supercontinent Rodinia and after the fragmentation of Rodinia in the late Proterozoic (700 Ma) became a member of the supercontinent Gondwana until its fragmentation in the Jurassic (about 180 Ma)
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Subduction
Subduction
Subduction
is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle. Regions where this process occurs are known as subduction zones. Rates of subduction are typically in centimeters per year, with the average rate of convergence being approximately two to eight centimeters per year along most plate boundaries.[1] Plates include both oceanic crust and continental crust. Stable subduction zones involve the oceanic lithosphere of one plate sliding beneath the continental or oceanic lithosphere of another plate due to the higher density of the oceanic lithosphere. That is, the subducted lithosphere is always oceanic while the overriding lithosphere may or may not be oceanic
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Carnegie Ridge
Coordinates: 1°00′S 83°00′W / 1.0°S 83.0°W / -1.0; -83.0Outline of aseismic ridges and plate boundaries off northwestern South America, suggested continuation of Carnegie Ridge
Carnegie Ridge
beneath Ecuador from Gutcher et al. 1999,[1] other models suggest that this area is much smallerThe Carnegie Ridge
Carnegie Ridge
is an aseismic ridge on the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
that is being subducted beneath the South American Plate. The ridge is thought to be a result of the passage of the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
over the Galapagos hotspot
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Chile Rise
The Chile Rise
Chile Rise
or Chile Ridge is an oceanic ridge, a tectonic divergent plate boundary between the Nazca and Antarctic Plates. Its eastern end is the Chile Triple Junction where the Chile Rise
Chile Rise
is being subducted below the South American Plate
South American Plate
in the Peru–Chile Trench.[1] It runs westward to a triple point south of the Juan Fernández Microplate where it intersects the East Pacific Rise. References[edit]^ Russo, R.M.; Vandecar, John C.; Comte, Diana; Mocanu, Victor I.; Gallego, Alejandro; Murdie, Ruth E. (2010). " Subduction
Subduction
of the Chile Ridge: Upper mantle structure and flow". GSA Today. Geological Society of America. 20 (9): 4
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Juan Fernández Ridge
The Juan Fernández Ridge
Juan Fernández Ridge
is a volcanic island and seamount chain on the Nazca Plate. It runs in a west-east direction from the Juan Fernández hotspot to the Peru–Chile Trench
Peru–Chile Trench
at a latitude of 33° S near Valparaíso. The Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
are the only seamounts that reach the surface. References[edit]von Huene, R.; Corvalán, J.; Flueh, E. R.; Hinz, K.; Korstgard, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Weinrebe, W
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Nazca Ridge
The Nazca Ridge is an ocean ridge in the southern Pacific Ocean. It lies on the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
and is being subducted in the Peru–Chile Trench under the South American Plate
South American Plate
by ongoing plate motion.[1] The ridge began subducting obliquely to the convergent boundary of the Nazca and South American Plates approximately 11.2 Ma ago.[2] References[edit]^ Geomorphic Effects in Western Peru due to Subduction
Subduction
of the Nazca Ridge ^ Hampel, Andrea (April 2018). "The migration history of the Nazca Ridge along the Peruvian active margin: a re-evaluation". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 203: 665–679 – via Elsevier Science. External links[edit]Jyotiranjan S. Ray; et al. (June 2012). "Chronology and Geochemistry of Lavas from the Nazca Ridge and Easter Seamount Chain: an ∼30 Myr Hotspot Record". Journal of Petrology. Oxford University Press
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Shear Zone
A shear zone is a very important structural discontinuity surface in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. It forms as a response to inhomogeneous deformation partitioning strain into planar or curviplanar high-strain zones. Intervening (crustal) blocks stay relatively unaffected by the deformation. Due to the shearing motion of the surrounding more rigid medium, a rotational, non co-axial component can be induced in the shear zone
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Atacama Fault
The Atacama Fault Zone (AFZ) is an extensive system of faults cutting across the Chilean Coastal Cordillera in Northern Chile between the Andean Mountain range and the Pacific Ocean. The fault system is North-South striking and runs for more than 1100 km North and up to 50 km in width through the Andean Forearc Basin.[1] The zone is a direct result of the ongoing subduction of the Eastward moving Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate and is believed to have formed in the Early Jurassic during the beginnings of the Andean orogeny
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Boconó Fault
The Boconó Fault is a complex of geological fault located in the Eastern Ranges of northeastern Colombia and the Mérida Andes of northwestern Venezuela. The fault has a NE-SW orientation. Boconó Fault is a strike-slip fault and has a dextral relative movement.[1] The fault extends over a length of 500 kilometres (310 mi). The fault, with a slip rate ranging from 4.3 to 6.1 millimetres (0.17 to 0.24 in) per year, has been active since the Early Holocene and earthquakes of 1610 and 1894 are associated with the Boconó Fault.[2] References[edit]Colombia portal Earthquakes portal Geology portal Venezuela portal^ Audemard et al., 2006 ^ Audemard, 1997Bibliography[edit]Audemard M., Franck A.; Singer P., André; Soulas, Jean-Pierre (2006). "Quaternary faults and stress regime of Venezuela" (PDF). Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina. Asociación Geológica Argentina. 61 (4): 480–491. Retrieved 2017-06-22.  Audemard Mennessier, Franck A. (1997)
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Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault
The Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault (BSMF, BSF) or Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault System (Spanish: (Sistema de) Falla(s) de Bucaramanga-Santa Marta) is a major oblique transpressional sinistral strike-slip fault (wrench fault) in the departments of Magdalena, Cesar, Norte de Santander and Santander in northern Colombia. The fault system is composed of two main outcropping segments, named Santa Marta and Bucaramanga Faults, and an intermediate Algarrobo Fault segment in the subsurface. The system has a total length of 674 kilometres (419 mi) and runs along an average north-northwest to south-southeast strike of 341 ± 23 from the Caribbean coast west of Santa Marta to the northern area of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The fault system is a major bounding fault for various sedimentary basins and igneous and metamorphic complexes
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Cordillera Blanca Fault Zone
The Cordillera Blanca Fault Zone (Spanish: Falla Cordillera Blanca) is a system of geological faults located next to Cordillera Blanca in the northern Peruvian Andes. The fault is considered the most active one in northern Peru. The last time the fault ruptured was in the 1500s or before.[1] The fault zone forms the western boundary of Cordillera Blanca Batholith.[2] References[edit]^ Siame, L.L.; Sébrier, M.; Bellier, O.; Bourles, D. (2006). "Can cosmic ray exposure dating reveal the normal faulting activity of the Cordillera Blanca Fault, Peru?". Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina. Asociación Geológica Argentina. 61 (4): 536–544. Retrieved 24 November 2015.  ^ Petford, Nick; Atherton, Michael (1996). "Na-rich Partial Melts from Newly Underplated Basaltic Crust: the Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Peru". Journal of Petrology
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Paranapanema Block
The Paranapanema block is a coherent block of lithosphere located in southeastern South America spanning roughly the same area as the Paraná Basin. The existence of a tectonically stable zone beneath the Paraná Basin was first suggested in 1975. Despite difficulties in accessing the buried Paranapanema block it is inferred it must be composed mostly of orthogneiss and the it existed before the Brasiliano orogeny.[1] References[edit]^ Mantovani, Marta S.M.; de Brito Neves, Benjamin B. (2010). "The Paranapanema Lithospheric Block: Its Nature and Role in the Accretion of Gondwana". In Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides; Haverson, Galen. Neoproterozoic-cambrian tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on south western Gondwana. Elsevier
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Dolores-Guayaquil Megashear
The Dolores-Guayaquil Megashear (Spanish: Megafalla Dolores-Guayaquil) is a first-order shear zone and fault zone in Northern South America.[1] The megashear runs from the Gulf of Guayaquil in southwestern Ecuador, through Colombia, to Dolores in Venezuela. See also[edit]Andean Volcanic BeltReferences[edit]^ Lavenu, A
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