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Snap Election
A snap election is an election called earlier than expected. Generally it refers to an election in a parliamentary system called when not required (either by law or convention), usually to capitalize on a unique electoral opportunity or to decide a pressing issue. It differs from a recall election in that it is initiated by politicians (usually the head of government or ruling party) rather than voters, and from a by-election in that the winners will serve an entire term as opposed to the remainder of an already established term.[1][2] Since the power to call snap elections usually lies with the incumbent, they usually result in increased majorities for the party already in power having been called at an advantageous time.[3] However, snap elections can also backfire on the incumbent and resulting in a decreased majority or even the opposition winning or gaining power
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Gair Affair
The Gair Affair was an episode in Australian political life in 1974, during the government led by the Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. Whitlam offered the post of Ambassador to Ireland to a non-government senator from Queensland, Vince Gair, in the hope that this would improve Labor's chance of gaining a majority in the Senate at the forthcoming general election
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the Commonwealth Realms).[2] In count
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Two-round System
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held. The two-round system is used around the world for the election of legislative bodies and directly elected presidents
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Political Party
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The political parties are well organized which agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized, and in how they operate, there are often many differences, and some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, and many represent ideologies very different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, and some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba. The United States is in practice a two-party system, but with many smaller parties also participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates
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Electoral System
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome
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National Electoral Calendar 2018
■ – Presidential (or head of state) ■ – Presidential and parliamentary/legislative ■ – Parliamentary/legislative ■ – Referendum
Referendum
and parliamentary/legislative ■ – Referendum ■ – Referendum
Referendum
and presidential ■ – Referendum, presidential and parliamentary/legislative ■ – Constitutional Assembly ■ – NoneThis national electoral calendar for the year 2018 lists the national/federal direct elections to be held in 2018 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories. By-elections are excluded, though national referendums are included
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Referendums By Country
A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite, or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal
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Parliamentary System
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government
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Prime Minister
A prime minister, also known as a premier, is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Australian House Of Representatives
Government (76) Coalition      Liberal (45)      LNP (21)[a]      National (10)Opposition (69)      Labor (69)Crossbench (5)      Greens (1)      Katter (1)      Xenophon (1)      Independent (2)[b] ElectionsVoting systemInstant-runoff votingLast election2 July 2016Next electionOn or before 2 November 2019Meeting placeHouse of Representatives chamber Parliament House Canberra, ACT, AustraliaWebsiteHouse of RepresentativesAustraliaThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of AustraliaConstitutionConstitution of AustraliaStatute of Westminster Adoption Act
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Secret Ballot
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying. The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy. Secret ballots are used in conjunction with various voting systems. The most basic form of secret ballot utilizes blank pieces of paper, upon which each voter writes his or her choice. Without revealing the votes to anyone, the voter would fold the ballot paper and place it in a sealed box, which is emptied later for counting. An aspect of secret voting is the provision of a voting booth to enable the voter to write on the ballot paper without others being able to see what is being written
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Governor-General Of Australia
At Her Majesty's pleasure (under convention, usually 5 years) [1]Formation 1 January 1901First holder The Earl
Earl
of HopetounSalary $425,000Website gg.gov.auAustraliaThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of AustraliaConstitutionConstitution of AustraliaStatute of Westminster Adoption Act Australia
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Prime Minister Of Australia
The Prime Minister of Australia
Australia
(sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of the Crown, the leader of the Cabinet and the chairperson of the National Security Committee. The Prime Minister also has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The office is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia
Australia
and exists only through longstanding political convention and tradition
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Australian Senate
Government (30) Coalition      Liberal (22)      LNP (5)[a]      National (2)      CLP (1)[b]Opposition (26)      Labor (26)Crossbench (20)      Greens (9)      One Nation (3)      Xenophon (2)      Hinch (1)      Liberal Democrat (1)      Conservatives (1)[c]      Independent (3)[d][e][f]  ElectionsVoting systemSingle transferable voteLast election2 July 2016Next electionOn or before 18 May 2019Meeting placeSenate chamber Parliament House Canberra, ACT, AustraliaWebsiteSenateAustraliaThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of AustraliaConstitutionConstitution of AustraliaStatute of Westminster Ado
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Double Dissolution
A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia
Australia
between the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). A double dissolution is the only circumstance in which the entire Senate can be dissolved. Similar to the United States Congress, but unlike the British Parliament, Australia's two parliamentary houses generally have almost equal legislative power (the Senate cannot amend, although may reject outright, appropriation (money) bills, which must originate in the House of Representatives). Governments, which are formed in the House of Representatives, can be frustrated by a Senate determined to reject their legislation. If the conditions (called a trigger) are satisfied, the Prime Minister can advise the Governor-General to dissolve both houses of Parliament and call a full election
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