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Slurry Wall
A slurry wall is a civil engineering technique used to build reinforced concrete walls in areas of soft earth close to open water, or with a high groundwater table.[1] This technique is typically used to build diaphragm (water-blocking) walls surrounding tunnels and open cuts, and to lay foundations.Contents1 Construction 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksConstruction[edit] While a trench is excavated to create a form for a wall, it is simultaneously filled with slurry (usually a mixture of bentonite and water). The dense but liquid slurry prevents the trench from collapsing by providing outward pressure, which balances the inward hydraulic forces and also retards water flow into the trench. Slurry
Slurry
walls are typically constructed by starting with a set of guide walls, typically 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) deep and 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in) thick
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Civil Engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines and railways.[1][2] Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines
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Milan Metro Line 1
Line 1 (Linea Uno in Italian) is the first underground rapid transit line built in Milan, Italy. It is part of the Milan Metro
Milan Metro
and it is operated by ATM. Works on the line began in 1957, and the first part was opened on 1 November 1964,[4][5] running from Sesto Marelli to Lotto station. The line is also called Red Line (Linea Rossa in Italian), as it is visually identified by red signs. Due to its premiership, the line gave its red color to the Milan Metro
Milan Metro
logo.Contents1 Route 2 History 3 Rolling stock 4 Extension 5 Gallery 6 Notes 7 ReferencesRoute[edit] The line runs underground from the northern suburb of Sesto San Giovanni to the city centre, then to the western district with two different branches, one northwest to Rho, the other to the west to Bisceglie
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Loam
Loam
Loam
is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size < 2 µm). By weight, its mineral composition is about 40–40–20% concentration of sand-silt-clay, respectively.[1] These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam.[1] In the USDA
USDA
textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam
Loam
soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils
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Permafrost
In geology, permafrost is ground,[1] including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. Most permafrost is located in high latitudes (in and around the Arctic and Antarctic regions), but at lower latitudes alpine permafrost occurs at higher elevations. Ground ice is not always present, as may be in the case of non-porous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material
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Nuclear Densometer
A nuclear densometer is a field instrument used in geotechnical engineering to determine the density of a compacted material. Also known as a soil density gauge, the device uses the interaction of gamma radiation with matter to measure density, either through direct transmission or the "backscatter" method. The device determines the density of material by counting the number of photons emitted by a radioactive source (cesium-137) that are read by the detector tubes in the gauge base. A 60-second time interval is typically used for the counting period. A nuclear densometer is used on a compacted base to establish its percentage of compaction. Before field tests are performed, the technician performs a calibration on the gauge which records the 'standard count' of the machine. Standard counts are the amount of radiation released by the two nuclear sources inside the machine, with no loss or leakage
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Piezometer
A piezometer is either a device used to measure liquid pressure in a system by measuring the height to which a column of the liquid rises against gravity, or a device which measures the pressure (more precisely, the piezometric head) of groundwater [1] at a specific point. A piezometer is designed to measure static pressures, and thus differs from a pitot tube by not being pointed into the fluid flow. Observation wells give some information on the water level in a formation, but must be read manually. Electrical pressure transducers of several types can be read automatically, making data acquisition more convenient. Groundwater
Groundwater
measurement[edit]Above-ground casing of a piezometerThe first piezometers in geotechnical engineering were open wells or standpipes (sometimes called Casagrande piezometers)[2] installed into an aquifer
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Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete
(RC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete
may also be permanently stressed (in tension), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads
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New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times
(sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
with worldwide influence and readership.[6][7][8] Founded in 1851, the paper has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[9][10] As of September 2016, it had the largest combined print-and-digital circulation of any daily newspaper in the United States.[11] The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation. The paper is owned by The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, which is publicly traded but primarily controlled by the Ochs-Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure.[12] It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G
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Virginia Tech
Virginia
Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia
Virginia
Tech, and traditionally known as VPI since 1896,[8] is a public, land-grant, research university with a main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, educational facilities in six regions statewide, and a study-abroad site in Switzerland
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Grout Curtain
A grout curtain is a barrier that protects the foundation of a dam from seepage and can be made during initial construction or during repair.[1] Additionally, they can be used to strengthen foundations and contain spills.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Method 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksCharacteristics[edit] A grout curtain usually consists of a row of vertically drilled holes filled with pressurized grout, a process commonly known as pressure grouting.[2] The holes are drilled in intervals and in such a way that they cross each other, creating a curtain. Method[edit] Grout
Grout
is injected with grouting jets, which
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Red Line Northwest Extension
The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). It runs roughly northwest-to-southeast across Cambridge and Davis Square in Somerville – from Alewife in North Cambridge to Kendall/MIT in Kendall Square – with a connection to commuter rail at Porter. It then crosses over the Longfellow Bridge into downtown Boston, where it connects with the Green Line at Park Street, the Orange Line at Downtown Crossing, the Silver Line at South Station, as well as Amtrak and commuter rail at the South Station surface terminal before passing through South Boston and Dorchester. South of JFK/UMass in Dorchester, it splits into two branches terminating at Braintree and Ashmont stations; transfers to commuter rail are again possible at JFK/UMass, Quincy Center, and Braintree
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Milan, Italy
Milan
Milan
(/mɪˈlæn, -ˈlɑːn/;[3] Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan
Milan
[miˈlãː] (Milanese variant))[4][5] is a city in northen Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy
Italy
after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,366,037[6] while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.[7] Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles),[8] ranking 4th in the European Union
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Loess
Loess
Loess
( /ˈloʊ.əs, lʌs, lɛs/, or UK: /lɜːrs/; from German Löss [lœs]) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.[1] 10% of the Earth's land area is covered by loess or similar deposits.[2] Loess
Loess
is an aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt,[3] typically in the 20–50 micrometer size range, twenty percent or less clay and the balance equal parts sand and silt[4] that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate
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Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater
is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells
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Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as calcium aluminate cements. However, asphalt concrete, which is frequently used for road surfaces, is also a type of concrete, where the cement material is bitumen, and polymer concretes are sometimes used where the cementing material is a polymer. When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement
Portland cement
and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape
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