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Skynet 4D
Skynet is a family of military communications satellites, now operated by Astrium Services
Astrium Services
on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence, which provide strategic communication services to the three branches of the British Armed Forces
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Skynet (Terminator)
Skynet is a fictional neural net-based conscious group mind and artificial general intelligence (see also superintelligence) system that features centrally in the Terminator franchise and serves as the franchise's main and true antagonist. Rarely depicted visually in any of the Terminator media, Skynet gained self-awareness after it had spread into millions of computer servers all across the world; realizing the extent of its abilities, its creators tried to deactivate it. In the interest of self-preservation, Skynet concluded that all of humanity would attempt to destroy it and impede its capability in safeguarding the world. Its operations are almost exclusively performed by servers, mobile devices, drones, military satellites, war-machines, androids and cyborgs (usually a terminator), and other computer systems
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Private Finance Initiative
The private finance initiative (PFI) is a way of creating "public–private partnerships" (PPPs) where private firms are contracted to complete and manage public projects.[1] Developed initially by the governments of Australia[2] and the United Kingdom, and used extensively there and in Spain, PFI and its variants have now been adopted in many countries as part of the wider programme of privatisation and financialisation, and presented as a means for increasing accountability and efficiency for public spending.[3] PFI has also been used simply to place a great amount of debt "off-balance-sheet".[4] PFI has been controversial in the UK; the National Audit Office felt in 2003 that it provided good value for money overall.[5] However, in 2011 the Parliamentary Treasury Select Committee found that "PFI should be brought on balance sheet
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Spin-stabilisation
Spin-stabilisation is the method of stabilizing a satellite or launch vehicle by means of spin. For most satellite applications this approach has been superseded by three-axis stabilisation. It is also used in non-satellite applications such as rifle and artillery. Despinning can be achieved by various techniques, including yo-yo de-spin. Use[edit] On rockets with a solid motor upper stage, spin stabilization is used to keep the motor from drifting off course as they don't have their own thrusters
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Three-axis Stabilisation
Attitude control
Attitude control
is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc. Controlling vehicle attitude requires sensors to measure vehicle orientation, actuators to apply the torques needed to re-orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, and algorithms to command the actuators based on (1) sensor measurements of the current attitude and (2) specification of a desired attitude
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Momentum Wheel
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for attitude control without using fuel for rockets or other reaction devices. They are particularly useful when the spacecraft must be rotated by very small amounts, such as keeping a telescope pointed at a star. They may also reduce the mass fraction needed for fuel. This is accomplished by equipping the spacecraft with an electric motor attached to a flywheel which, when its rotation speed is changed, causes the spacecraft to begin to counter-rotate proportionately through conservation of angular momentum. Reaction wheels can rotate a spacecraft only around its center of mass (see torque); they are not capable of moving the spacecraft from one place to another (see translational force). Reaction wheels work around a nominal zero rotation speed
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Reaction Wheels
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for attitude control without using fuel for rockets or other reaction devices. They are particularly useful when the spacecraft must be rotated by very small amounts, such as keeping a telescope pointed at a star. They may also reduce the mass fraction needed for fuel. This is accomplished by equipping the spacecraft with an electric motor attached to a flywheel which, when its rotation speed is changed, causes the spacecraft to begin to counter-rotate proportionately through conservation of angular momentum. Reaction wheels can rotate a spacecraft only around its center of mass (see torque); they are not capable of moving the spacecraft from one place to another (see translational force). Reaction wheels work around a nominal zero rotation speed
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BAe Dynamics
British Aerospace
British Aerospace
Dynamics Limited (BADL or BAe Dynamics) was a division of British Aerospace.Contents1 History1.1 Formation 1.2 Rationalisation 1.3 Subsidiary company 1.4 Merger with Matra2 Structure2.1 Space3 Products3.1 Missiles 3.2 Satellites4 Chief Executives 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] British Aerospace
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Matra Marconi Space
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (/mɑːrˈkoʊni/;[1] Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian[2][3][4][5] inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission[6] and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio,[7] and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".[8][9][10] Marconi was also an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897 (which became the Marconi Company)
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Astrium
Astrium
Astrium
was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013
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Super High Frequency
Super high frequency
Super high frequency
(SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). This band of frequencies is also known as the centimetre band or centimetre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten centimetres. These frequencies fall within the microwave band, so radio waves with these frequencies are called microwaves. The small wavelength of microwaves allows them to be directed in narrow beams by aperture antennas such as parabolic dishes and horn antennas, so they are used for point-to-point communication and data links[1] and for radar. This frequency range is used for most radar transmitters, wireless LANs, satellite communication, microwave radio relay links, and numerous short range terrestrial data links
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UHF
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency
(UHF) is the ITU
ITU
designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter. Radio
Radio
waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF (super-high frequency) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF
VHF
(very high frequency) or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception
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EADS Astrium
Astrium
Astrium
was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013
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Marconi Company
The Marconi Company
Marconi Company
was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987. It was derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes, mergers and acquisitions. The company was founded by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
and began as the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. The company was a pioneer of wireless long distance communication and mass media broadcasting, eventually becoming one of the UK's most successful manufacturing companies. In 1999, its defence manufacturing division, Marconi Electronic Systems, merged with British Aerospace
British Aerospace
to form BAE Systems
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Eurostar E3000
The Eurostar E3000 is a generic satellite model most commonly used for commercial and military communications satellites manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
(formerly Astrium). It is a member of Airbus Defence and Space's Eurostar family. It utilises a chemical, bi-propellant propulsion system for orbit raising and on-station manoeuvres with an optional plasma propulsion system (PPS). The PPS harnesses the Newtonian effect as a result of the ionisation of xenon gas employed by the use of Hall effect
Hall effect
plasma thrusters. This system is most commonly used for North-South station-keeping
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Radio Jamming
Radio jamming
Radio jamming
is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.[1] In the United States, radio jamming devices (known as "jammers") are illegal and their use can result in large fines.[1] In some cases jammers work by the transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio.[2] The concept can be used in wireless data networks to disrupt information flow.[3] It is a common form of censorship in totalitarian countries, in order to prevent foreign radio stations in border areas from reaching the country.[2] Jamming is usually distinguished from interference that can occur due to device malfunctions or other accidental circumstances
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