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Sittlichkeit
Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" or "ethical order" furthered by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
in his 1807 work Phenomenology of Spirit
Phenomenology of Spirit
and his 1820/21 work Elements of the Philosophy of Right (PR).Contents1 The three spheres of right 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksThe three spheres of right[edit] In Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Hegel introduces the sphere of abstract right[1] (Recht),[2] the first of the three spheres of right he establishes
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Philosopher
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.[1] The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC).[2] In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors.[3] Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought
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Isaiah Berlin
Sir Isaiah Berlin
Isaiah Berlin
OM CBE FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.[1] Although adverse to writing, his improvised lectures and talks were recorded and transcribed, with his spoken word being converted by his secretaries into his published essays and books. Born in Riga, Latvia, in 1909, he moved to Petrograd, Russia, at the age of six, where he witnessed the revolutions of 1917. In 1921 his family moved to the UK, and he was educated at St Paul's School, London, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford.[2] In 1932, at the age of 23, Berlin was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford. He translated works by Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Turgenev
from Russian into English and, during the war, worked for the British Diplomatic Service. From 1957 to 1967 he was Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford
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Kantian Morality
Kantian ethics
Kantian ethics
refers to a deontological ethical theory ascribed to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. The theory, developed as a result of Enlightenment rationalism, is based on the view that the only intrinsically good thing is a good will; an action can only be good if its maxim – the principle behind it – is duty to the moral law. Central to Kant's construction of the moral law is the categorical imperative, which acts on all people, regardless of their interests or desires. Kant formulated the categorical imperative in various ways. His principle of universalizability requires that, for an action to be permissible, it must be possible to apply it to all people without a contradiction occurring. If a contradiction occurs the act violates Aristotle's "Non-contradiction" concept which states that just actions cannot lead to contradictions[1]
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Positive Freedom
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.[1] A concept of positive liberty may also include freedom from internal constraints.[2] The concepts of structure and agency are central to the concept of positive liberty because in order to be free, a person should be free from inhibitions of the social structure in carrying out their free will. Structurally, classism, sexism, ageism and racism can inhibit a person's freedom
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Moral Autonomy
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy[1] is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from human resource perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work.[2] In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some sense of job satisfaction among the employees. Autonomy is a term that is also widely used and in the field of medicine
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Civil Society
Civil society
Civil society
is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".[1] Civil society includes the family and the private sphere, referred to as the "third sector" of society, distinct from government and business.[2] By other authors, "civil society" is used in the sense of 1) the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or 2) individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government.[1] Sometimes the term civil society is used in the more general sense of "the elements such as freedom of speech, an independent judiciary, etc, that make up a democratic society" (Collins English Dictionary).[3] Especially in the discussions among thinkers of Eastern and Central Europe, civil society is seen also as a concept of civic values
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Allen W. Wood
Allen William Wood[1] (born October 26, 1942)[2] is an American philosopher specializing in the work of Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and German Idealism, with particular interests in ethics and social philosophy. He is the Ruth Norman Halls professor of philosophy at Indiana University[3] and has held professorships and visiting appointments at numerous universities in the United States and Europe
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Phenomenology Of Spirit
The Phenomenology of Spirit
The Phenomenology of Spirit
(German: Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work. Hegel's first book, it describes the three-stage dialectical life of Spirit. Its German title can be translated as either The Phenomenology of Spirit
The Phenomenology of Spirit
or The Phenomenology of Mind, because the German word Geist
Geist
has both meanings. The book's working title, which also appeared in the first edition, was Science of the Experience of Consciousness. On its initial publication (see cover image on right), it was identified as Part One of a projected "System of Science", of which the Science of Logic
Science of Logic
was the second part
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Elements Of The Philosophy Of Right
Elements of the Philosophy
Philosophy
of Right (German: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) is a work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published in 1820,[1] though the book's original title page dates it to 1821. Hegel's most mature statement of his legal, moral, social and political philosophy, it is an expansion upon concepts only briefly dealt with in the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, published in 1817 (and again in 1827 and 1830). Law
Law
provides for Hegel the cornerstone of the modern state. As such, he criticized Karl Ludwig von Haller's The Restoration of the Science of the State, in which the latter claimed that law was superficial, because natural law and the "right of the most powerful" was sufficient (§258)
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Negative Freedom
Negative liberty
Negative liberty
is freedom from interference by other people. Negative liberty
Negative liberty
is primarily concerned with freedom from external restraint and contrasts with positive liberty (the possession of the power and resources to fulfil one's own potential). According to Thomas Hobbes, "a free man is he that in those things which by his strength and will he is able to do is not hindered to do what he hath the will to do" (Leviathan, Part 2, Ch. XXI; thus alluding to liberty in its negative sense). An idea that anticipates the distinction between negative and positive liberty was G. F. W
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
(/ˈheɪɡəl/;[15] German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well.[16] Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism",[17] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy
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Sittlichkeit
Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" or "ethical order" furthered by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
in his 1807 work Phenomenology of Spirit
Phenomenology of Spirit
and his 1820/21 work Elements of the Philosophy of Right (PR).Contents1 The three spheres of right 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksThe three spheres of right[edit] In Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Hegel introduces the sphere of abstract right[1] (Recht),[2] the first of the three spheres of right he establishes
[...More...]

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