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Sir Godfrey Kneller
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet
Baronet
(born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I
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Free City Of Lübeck
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Lübeck
was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.Contents1 History1.1 Imperial Free City and the Hanseatic League 1.2 Full sovereignty in 1806 1.3 First annexation 1.4 Reestablishment as sovereign state in 1813 1.5 Second and final annexation2 See also 3 ReferencesHistory[edit] Imperial Free City and the Hanseatic League[edit] In 1226 Emperor Frederick II declared the city of Lübeck
Lübeck
to be a Free Imperial City. Lübeck
Lübeck
law was the constitution of the city's municipal form of government developed after being made a free city. In theory, Lübeck
Lübeck
law made the cities which had adopted it independent of royalty
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Baronet
A baronet (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/;[1] abbreviated Bart or Bt[1]) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/,[2] /ˈbærənɪtɛs/,[3] or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/;[4] abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England
James I of England
in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant)
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Venice
Venice
Venice
(/ˈvɛnɪs/, VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia, [veˈnɛttsja] ( listen); Venetian: Venesia, [veˈnɛsja]) is a city in northeastern Italy
Italy
and the capital of the Veneto
Veneto
region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands[1] that are separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are 400.[2][3] The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice
Venice
are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork.[2] The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.[2] In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune
Comune
di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(Centro storico)
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Carlo Maratti
Carlo Maratta
Carlo Maratta
or Maratti (13 May 1625 – 15 December 1713) was an Italian painter, active mostly in Rome, and known principally for his classicizing paintings executed in a Late Baroque
Baroque
Classical manner. Although he is part of the classical tradition stemming from Raphael, he was not exempt from the influence of Baroque
Baroque
painting and particularly in his use of colour. His contemporary and friend, Giovanni Bellori, wrote an early biography on Maratta.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Partial anthology of works 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Camerano
Camerano
(Marche), then part of the Papal States, he went to Rome
Rome
in 1636, accompanied by, Don Corintio Benicampi, secretary to Taddeo Barberini.[2] He became an apprentice in the studio of Andrea Sacchi
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Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
(English: /ˈhæmbɜːrɡ/; German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] ( listen); locally: [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] ( listen)), Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç] ( listen), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg
(German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg),[5] is the second-largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region
Hamburg Metropolitan Region
which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than 5 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state
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Duke Of Monmouth
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was an English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter. He served in the Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War
and commanded English troops taking part in the Third Anglo-Dutch War
Third Anglo-Dutch War
before commanding the Anglo-Dutch brigade fighting in the Franco-Dutch War. In 1685 he led the unsuccessful Monmouth Rebellion, an attempt to depose his uncle, King James II and VII
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Wig (hair)
A wig is a head covering made from human hair, animal hair, or synthetic fiber. The word wig is short for periwig and first appeared in the English language around 1675.[citation needed] Some people wear wigs to disguise baldness; a wig may be used as a less intrusive and less expensive alternative to medical therapies for restoring hair.Contents1 History1.1 Ancient use 1.2 16th and 17th centuries 1.3 18th century 1.4 19th and 20th centuries2 Military wigs 3 Merkin 4 Current usage4.1 Image gallery5 Manufacture5.1 Measurement 5.2 Foundation 5.3 Hair preparation 5.4 Adding the hair 5.5 Styling 5.6 Fitting 5.7 Types of human hair wigs6 Notable wig designers 7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingHistory[edit] Ancient use[edit] In Egyptian society men and women commonly had clean shaven or close cropped hair and often wore wigs.[1][2] The ancient Egyptians created the wig to shield shaved, hairless heads from the sun
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William Hogarth
William Hogarth
William Hogarth
FRSA
FRSA
(/ˈhoʊɡɑːrθ/; 10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects",[2] perhaps best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress
A Rake's Progress
and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as "Hogarthian".[3] Hogarth was born in London to a poor middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship where he specialised in engraving
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Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
RA FRS FRSA (/ˈrɛnəldz/; 16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits. John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th Century. [1] He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect
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Knighthood
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Great Queen Street
Great Queen Street
Great Queen Street
is a street in the West End of central London in England. It is a continuation of Long Acre from Drury Lane
Drury Lane
to Kingsway. It runs from 1 to 44 along the north side, east to west, and 45 to about 80 along the south side, west to east. The street straddles and connects the Covent Garden
Covent Garden
and Holborn
Holborn
districts and is in the London Borough of Camden. It is numbered B402.Contents1 Early history 2 Masonic connections 3 Residents and businesses 4 References 5 External linksEarly history[edit] The street was called "Queen Street" from around 1605–9, and "Great Queen Street" from around 1670.[1] In 1646 William Newton was given permission to build fourteen large houses, each with a forty-foot frontage, on the south side of the street
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Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(/ˈæmstərdæm/;[9][10][11] Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,[12] although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.[13] Amsterdam
Amsterdam
has a population of 851,373 within the city proper, 1,351,587 in the urban area,[14] and 2,410,960 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area.[8] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million.[15] Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[16] indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel
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Thomas Gibson (artist)
Thomas Gibson (born London, c. 1680; died London, 28 April 1751) was an English painter and copyist. Life[edit] He was an established portrait painter by 1711, when he was appointed a founding director of Godfrey Kneller's Academy in London; among his pupils there was George Vertue. Gibson's sitters included a number of important public figures: Dr Henry Sacheverell (1710; Oxford, Magdalen Coll.), John Flamsteed (1712; Oxford, Bodleian Lib.), Sir Robert Walpole (untraced; engr. G. Bockman), Archbishop William Wake (Oxford, Christ Church Pict. Gal.) and Archbishop John Potter (London, Lambeth Pal.)
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British Whig Party
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories
Tories
back in. The "Whig Supremacy" (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1715
by Tory rebels
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