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Sinhala Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
Brahmi script<

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Toponyms
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Meaning and history 3 Issues 4 Noted toponymists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos (τόπος) "place" and ónoma (ὄνομα) "name". Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds. Meaning and history[edit] Toponym is the general name for any place or geographical entity.[1] Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Lion
P. l. atrox P. l. europaea P. l. melanochaita (Sensu stricto) P. l. sinhaleyus P. l. spelaea P. l. vereshchaginiDistribution of Panthera
Panthera
leo in Africa
Africa
and Eurasia, in the past and present.Synonyms Felis
Felis
leo Linnaeus, 1758The lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo) is a species in the family Felidae
Felidae
and a member of the genus Panthera. It is the second largest extant species after the tiger. It exhibits a pronounced sexual dimorphism; males are larger than females with a typical weight range of 150 to 250 kg (331 to 551 lb) for the former and 120 to 182 kg (265 to 401 lb) for the latter
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Mahavamsa
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
portalBibliography Glossary Timelinev t eThe Mahavamsa
Mahavamsa
("Great Chronicle", Pali
Pali
Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali
Pali
language of the ancient Kings of Sri Lanka.[1] It relates the history of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
from its legendary beginnings up to the reign of Mahasena of Anuradhapura
Mahasena of Anuradhapura
(A.D. 302) covering the period between the arrival of Prince Vijaya
Prince Vijaya
from India
India
in 543 BCE to his reign (277–304 CE)
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Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India
The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and other worldly extraterrestrials came to inhabit the living world. Many of these tribes have a strong historical basis, while the supernatural and fantastic aspects are considered literary speculation
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Lanka
Lanka
Lanka
/ˈləŋkɑː/ is the name given in Hindu
Hindu
epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana
Ravana
in the epics of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. The fortress was situated on a plateau between three mountain peaks known as the Trikuta Mountains. The ancient city of Lankapura is thought to have been burnt down by Hanuman. After its king, Ravana, was killed by Rama
Rama
with the help of Ravana's brother Vibhishana, the latter was crowned king of Lankapura. The site of Lankā is identified with Sri Lanka
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Yaksha
Yaksha
Yaksha
(Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan,[1] Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha)[2] are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.[3] They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, as well as ancient and medieval era temples of South Asia and Southeast Asia as guardian deities.[3][4] The feminine form of the word is yakṣī[5] or Yakshini
Yakshini
(yakṣiṇī).[6] In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist texts, the yakṣa has a dual personality
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Naga People (Lanka)
The Naga people were believed to be an ancient tribe who once inhabited Sri Lanka. They make references in several ancient text such as Mahavamsa, Manimekalai
Manimekalai
and also in other Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali literature. They are generally being represented as a class of humans taking the form of serpents who inhabit a subterranean world.[2] Other texts such as Manimekalai
Manimekalai
represent them as humans.[3] Certain places such as Nagadeepa in Jaffna and Kalyani in Gampaha are mentioned as their abodes.[4] The names of some Naga kings in Sri Lankan legends such as Mani Akkhitha (Mani Naga) and Mahodara are also found in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature among superhuman Nagas[note 1], and the cult of Mani Naga prevailed in India
India
up to medieval times.[5] They inhabited the Northern and Western parts of Sri Lanka
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Kalinga (historical Kingdom)
Kalinga is a historical region of India. It is generally defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
and the Godavari rivers, although its boundaries have fluctuated with the territory of its rulers. The core territory of Kalinga now encompasses a large part of Odisha
Odisha
and northern part of Andhra Pradesh. At its widest extent, the Kalinga region also included a part of present-day Chhattisgarh and Telangana. The Kalingas have been mentioned as a major tribe in the legendary text Mahabharata. In the 3rd century BCE, the region came under Mauryan control as a result of the Kalinga War. It was subsequently ruled by several regional dynasties whose rulers bore the title Kalingadhipati ("Lord of Kalinga"); these dynasties included Mahameghavahana, Vasishtha, Mathara, Pitrbhakta, Shailodbhava, Somavamsi, and Eastern Ganga
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Magadha
Magadha
Magadha
was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India. Magadha
Magadha
played an important role in the development of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha. The existence of Magadha
Magadha
is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600 BCE. The earliest reference to the Magadha
Magadha
people occurs in the Atharvaveda, where they are found listed along with the Angas, Gandharis and Mujavats. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha
Rajagriha
(modern Rajgir), then Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna)
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Aspirated Consonant
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.[citation needed] To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say spin [spɪn] and then pin [pʰɪn]
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Vowel Length
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Arabic, Finnish, Fijian, Kannada, Japanese, Old English, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, unlike other varieties of Chinese. Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels. A very few languages distinguish three phonemic vowel lengths, such as Luiseño and Mixe
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Sandhi
Sandhi[note 1] (Sanskrit: संधि saṃdhí "joining") is a cover term for a wide variety of sound changes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. Examples include fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of one sound depending on nearby sounds or the grammatical function of the adjacent words
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Middle Indo-Aryan Languages
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. They are the descendants of Old Indo-Aryan (attested in Vedic Sanskrit) and the predecessors of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Odia, Bengali and Punjabi. The Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) stage in the evolution of Indo-Aryan languages is thought to have spanned more than a millennium between 600 BCE and 1000 CE, and is often divided into three major subdivisions.The early stage is represented by the Ardhamagadhi of the Edicts of Ashoka (c. 250 BC) and Jain Agamas, and by the Pali of the Tripitakas. The middle stage is represented by the various literary Prakrits, especially the Shauraseni language and Maharashtri and Magadhi Prakrits
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Elision
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. Sometimes sounds are elided to make a word easier to pronounce. The word elision is frequently used in linguistic description of living languages, and deletion is often used in historical linguistics for a historical sound change. In English as spoken by native speakers, elisions come naturally, and are often described as "slurred" or "muted" sounds. Often, elisions are deliberate
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