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Single Transferable Vote
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).[1] Under STV, an elector (voter) has a single vote that is initially allocated to their most preferred candidate and, as the count proceeds and candidates are either elected or eliminated, is transferred to other candidates according to the voter's stated preferences, in proportion to any surplus or discarded votes
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Electoral System
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome
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Party-list Proportional Representation
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list. They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.[1] In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives
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Preferential Block Voting
Preferential block voting
Preferential block voting
is a majoritarian voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember constituency. Unlike the single transferable vote, preferential block voting is not a method for obtaining proportional representation, and instead produces similar results to plurality block voting, of which it can be seen as the instant-runoff version. Under both systems, a single group of like-minded voters can win every seat, making both forms of block voting nonproportional.Contents1 Casting and counting the ballots 2 Effects of preferential block voting 3 Usage of preferential block voting 4 Ballots 5 ReferencesCasting and counting the ballots[edit] In preferential block voting, a ranked ballot is used, ranking candidates from most to least preferred
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Range Voting
Range voting
Range voting
or score voting[1][2] is an electoral system for single-seat elections, in which voters give each candidate a score, the scores are added (or, equivalently, averaged),[3][4] and the candidate with the highest total is elected. It has been described by various other names including evaluative voting,[5] utilitarian voting,[5] the point system, ratings summation, 0-99 voting, average voting, and utility voting
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Approval Voting
Approval voting
Approval voting
is a single-winner electoral system where each voter may select ("approve") any number of candidates. The winner is the most-approved candidate. Robert J
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Proportional Approval Voting
Proportional approval voting (PAV) is an electoral system which is an extension of approval voting to multiple-winner elections. It applies proportional representation principles with a ballot which is no more complicated than ballots for plurality voting. It allows each voter to vote for as many or as few candidates as they choose. The system was invented by Thorvald N. Thiele.[1] It was rediscovered by Forest Simmons in 2001,[2] who coined the name "proportional approval voting".Contents1 Description 2 Example 3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] PAV works by looking at how "satisfied" each voter is with each potential result or outcome of the election
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Sequential Proportional Approval Voting
Sequential proportional approval voting (SPAV) or reweighted approval voting (RAV) is an electoral system that extends the concept of approval voting to a multiple winner election. Proposed by Danish statistician Thorvald N. Thiele
Thorvald N. Thiele
in the early 1900s,[1] it was used (with adaptations for party lists) in Sweden
Sweden
for a short period after 1909.[2] Description[edit] This system converts AV into a multi-round rule,[3] selecting a candidate in each round and then reweighing the approvals for the subsequent rounds. The first candidate elected is the AV winner (w1). The value of all ballots that approve of w1 are reduced in value from 1 to 1/2 and the approval scores recalculated. Next, the unelected candidate who has the highest approval score is elected (w2)
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Satisfaction Approval Voting
Satisfaction approval voting (SAV) is an electoral system that extends the concept of approval voting to a multiple winner election. It was proposed by Steven Brams
Steven Brams
and Marc Kilgour in 2010.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Example 3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] Satisfaction approval voting aims to maximise the electorate's satisfaction, rather like proportional approval voting (PAV), however SAV calculates a voter's satisfaction differently to the way used in PAV. The satisfaction gained by a voter when a candidate they approve of is elected is equal to 1/n where n is the number of candidates that they voted for.[2] This has the effect of giving everyone a single vote that they split between the n candidates that they vote for
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Majority Judgment
Majority judgment
Majority judgment
is a single-winner voting system proposed by Michel Balinski and Rida Laraki. Voters freely grade each candidate in one of several named ranks, for instance from "excellent" to "bad", and the candidate with the highest median grade is the winner. If more than one candidate has the same median grade, a tiebreaker is used which sees the "closest to median" grade
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Open List
Open list
Open list
describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected. This as opposed to closed list, which allows only active members, party officials, or consultants to determine the order of its candidates and gives the general voter no influence at all on the position of the candidates placed on the party list. Additionally, an open list system allows voters to select individuals rather than parties. Different systems give voter different amounts of influence
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Bucklin Voting
Bucklin voting
Bucklin voting
is a class of voting methods that can be used for single-member and multi-member districts. It is named after its original promoter, the Georgist
Georgist
politician[1] James W. Bucklin of Grand Junction, Colorado, and is also known as the Grand Junction system. As in Majority Judgment, the Bucklin winner will be one of the candidates with the highest median ranking or rating.Contents1 Voting process 2 Variants and relationships to other method 3 Bucklin applied to multiwinner elections 4 History and usage 5 Satisfied and failed criteria 6 Example application 7 Voter strategy 8 See also 9 ReferencesVoting process[edit] Bucklin rules varied, but here is a typical example: Voters are allowed rank preference ballots (first, second, third, etc.). First choice votes are first counted. If one candidate has a majority, that candidate wins. Otherwise the second choices are added to the first choices
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Closed List
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected. If voters have at least some influence then it is called an open list. In closed list systems, each political party has pre-decided who will receive the seats allocated to that party in the elections, so that the candidates positioned highest on this list tend to always get a seat in the parliament while the candidates positioned very low on the closed list will not. However, the candidates "at the water mark" of a given party are in the position of either losing or winning their seat depending on the number of votes the party gets. "The water mark" is the number of seats a specific party can be expected to achieve
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Localized List
A localized list or local list is a technique used under systems of party-list proportional representation to determine which party candidates are elected from the party list. Local lists differ from open lists or closed lists. As with open lists, local lists allow the electorate to vote for individual candidates, but that preference is expressed through local or district level election processes. Closed lists do not allow voters to express such a preference. Voters vote only for the party. Voting in local list systems takes place at the district level, where each party is represented by a single candidate. In this, the system resembles first-past-the-post or other single-winner systems. However, the candidate with the largest number of votes in a district is not necessarily the one that is elected
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Highest Averages Method
The highest averages method is the name for a variety of ways to allocate seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. It requires the number of votes for each party to be divided successively by a series of divisors. This produces a table of quotients, or averages, with a row for each divisor and a column for each party
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D'Hondt Method
The D'Hondt method[a] or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation. The method described is named in United States after Thomas Jefferson, who introduced the method for proportional allocation of seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1791, and in Europe after Belgian mathematician Victor D'Hondt, who described it in 1878 for proportional allocation of parliamentary seats to the parties. There are two forms: closed list (a party selects the order of election of their candidates) and an open list (voters' choices determine the order). Proportional representation
Proportional representation
systems aim to allocate seats to parties approximately in proportion to the number of votes received. For example, if a party wins one-third of the votes then it should gain about one-third of the seats
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