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Single-sideband Modulation
In radio communications, single-sideband modulation (SSB) or single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation (SSB-SC) is a type of modulation, used to transmit information, such as an audio signal, by radio waves. A refinement of amplitude modulation, it uses transmitter power and bandwidth more efficiently. Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation
produces an output signal that has twice the bandwidth of the original baseband signal
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Rocky Point, New York
Rocky Point is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in Suffolk County, New York, on the North Shore, of Long Island. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP population was 14,014.[1] Rocky Point is a community in the Town of Brookhaven.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics of the CDP 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Rocky Point is home to the site where American radio company RCA
RCA
once operated a very large transmitting and transmitter research facility, known as Radio Central. RCA
RCA
began to transmit transatlantic radio messages from Radio Central after its opening on November 5, 1921. Early Radio Central transmissions were received by many European nations, including Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, and Poland.Rocky Point LandingOn January 7, 1927, AT&T initiated the first transatlantic commercial telephone service, linking London and New York
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Radio Wave
Radio waves
Radio waves
are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300  GHz to as low as 3 kHz, though some definitions[1][2] describe waves above 300 MHz or 3  GHz as microwaves, or include waves of any lower frequency. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (0.039 in), and at 3 kHz is 100 km (62 mi). Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light. Naturally occurring radio waves are generated by lightning, or by astronomical objects. Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites, computer networks and many other applications
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Angle Modulation
Angle modulation is a class of carrier modulation that is used in telecommunications transmission systems. The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal
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Polar Modulation
Polar modulation is analogous to quadrature modulation in the same way that polar coordinates are analogous to Cartesian coordinates. Quadrature modulation makes use of Cartesian coordinates, x and y. When considering quadrature modulation, the x axis is called the I (in-phase) axis, and the y axis is called the Q (quadrature) axis. Polar modulation makes use of polar coordinates, r (amplitude) and Θ (phase). The quadrature modulator approach to digital radio transmission requires a linear RF power amplifier
RF power amplifier
which creates a design conflict between improving power efficiency or maintaining amplifier linearity. Compromising linearity causes degraded signal quality, usually by adjacent channel degradation, which can be a fundamental factor in limiting network performance and capacity
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Pulse-code Modulation
Pulse-code modulation
Pulse-code modulation
(PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications
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Pulse-width Modulation
Pulse-width modulation
Pulse-width modulation
(PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial[definition needed] loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers,[1] the other being maximum power point tracking. The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate
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Delta-sigma Modulation
Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). It is also used to convert high bit-count, low-frequency digital signals into lower bit-count, higher-frequency digital signals as part of the process to convert digital signals into analog as part of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In a conventional ADC, an analog signal is sampled with a sampling frequency and subsequently quantized in a multi-level quantizer into a digital signal. This process introduces quantization error noise. The first step in a delta-sigma modulation is delta modulation. In delta modulation the change in the signal (its delta) is encoded, rather than the absolute value. The result is a stream of pulses, as opposed to a stream of numbers as is the case with pulse code modulation (PCM)
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Radio
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Line Code
Some signals are more prone to error than others when conveyed over a communication channel as the physics of the communication or storage medium constrains the repertoire of signals that can be used reliably.[1] The repertoire of signals is usually called a constrained code in data storage systems. In telecommunication, a line code is a code chosen for use within a communications system for transmitting a digital signal down a transmission line. Line or constrained coding generates the repertoire of allowed digital signals to be transported, with a waveform or set of allowed waveforms that is appropriate for the specific properties of the physical channel and of the receiving equipment
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Audio Signal
An audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage for analog signals and a binary number for digital signals. Audio signals have frequencies in the audio frequency range of roughly 20 to 20,000 Hz (the limits of human hearing). Audio signals may be synthesized directly, or may originate at a transducer such as a microphone, musical instrument pickup, phonograph cartridge, or tape head
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Electric Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Bandwidth (signal Processing)
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband bandwidth or baseband bandwidth. Passband
Passband
bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum
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Spectrum
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums)[1] is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum. The word was first used scientifically in optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light after passing through a prism. As scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Spectrum
Spectrum
has since been applied by analogy to topics outside optics. Thus, one might talk about the "spectrum of political opinion", or the "spectrum of activity" of a drug, or the "autism spectrum". In these uses, values within a spectrum may not be associated with precisely quantifiable numbers or definitions. Such uses imply a broad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single title for ease of discussion. Nonscientific uses of the term spectrum are sometimes misleading
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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