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Simone Duvalier
SIMONE DUVALIER (c. 1913–1997), also known as MAMA DOC, was the wife of Haitian dictator François " Papa Doc " Duvalier (1907–1971) and the First Lady of Haiti
Haiti
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 First Lady * 3 Exile and death * 4 References EARLY LIFEShe was born Simone Ovide in about 1913 near the Haitian town of Léogâne , the daughter of a mulatto merchant and writer, Jules Faine , and Célie Ovide, one of the maids in his household. At an early age her mother gave her up, and she spent much of her childhood in an orphanage in Pétion-Ville , an exclusive suburb in the hills above Port-au-Prince . The orphans were encouraged to acquire vocational skills and Simone Ovide was trained as a nurse\'s aide . While working as a nurse she met a young doctor named François Duvalier
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Haitian Vodou
HAITIAN VODOU (/ˈvoʊ.duː/ , French: , also written as VAUDOU /ˈvoʊ.duː/ ; known commonly as VOODOO /ˈvuː.duː/ , sometimes as VODUN /ˈvoʊ.duː/ , VODOUN /ˈvoʊ.duːn/ , VODU /ˈvoʊ.duː/ , or VAUDOUX /ˈvoʊ.duː/ ) is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti
Haiti
and the Haitian diaspora . Practitioners are called "vodouists" (French : vodouisants ) or "servants of the spirits" ( Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
: sèvitè). Vodouists believe in a distant and unknowable Supreme Creator , Bondye (derived from the French term Bon
Bon
Dieu, meaning "good God
God
"). According to Vodouists, Bondye does not intercede in human affairs, and thus they direct their worship toward spirits subservient to Bondye, called loa
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Nurse's Aide
UNLICENSED ASSISTIVE PERSONNEL (UAP) is a class of paraprofessionals who assist individuals with physical disabilities , mental impairments, and other health care needs with their activities of daily living (ADLs) and provide bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—all under the supervision of a registered nurse , licensed practical nurse or other health care professional . UAPs must demonstrate their abilities and competencies before gaining any expanded responsibilities within the clinical setting. They provide care for patients in hospitals , residents of nursing facilities , clients in private homes, and others in need of their services due to effects of old age or disability
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Port-au-Prince
PORT-AU-PRINCE (/ˌpɔːrtoʊˈprɪns/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Haitian Creole : Pòtoprens; Haitian Creole pronunciation: ) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti
Haiti
. The city's population was estimated at 987,310 in 2015 with the metropolitan area (aire métropolitaine) estimated at a population of 2,618,894. The metropolitan area is defined by the IHSI as including the communes of Port-au-Prince, Delmas , Cite Soleil
Cite Soleil
, Tabarre , Carrefour , and Pétion-Ville . The city of Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
is on the Gulf of Gonâve : the bay on which the city lies, which acts as a natural harbor, has sustained economic activity since the civilizations of the Arawaks . It was first incorporated under French colonial rule in 1749
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Cité Soleil
CITé SOLEIL (Haitian Creole : Site Solèy; English: Sun City) is an extremely impoverished and densely populated commune located in the Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
metropolitan area in Haiti
Haiti
. Cité Soleil
Cité Soleil
originally developed as a shanty town and grew to an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 residents, the majority of whom live in extreme poverty. The area is generally regarded as one of the poorest and most dangerous areas of the Western Hemisphere and it is one of the biggest slums in the Northern Hemisphere. The area has virtually no sewers and has a poorly maintained open canal system that serves as its sewage system, few formal businesses but many local commercial activities and enterprises, sporadic but largely free electricity, a few hospitals, and two government schools, Lycee Nationale de Cite Soleil, and Ecole Nationale de Cite Soleil
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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New York Times
THE NEW YORK TIMES (sometimes abbreviated NYT and THE TIMES) is an American daily newspaper , founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company . The New York Times
The New York Times
has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes , more than any other newspaper. The paper's print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the United States. The New York Times
The New York Times
is ranked 18th in the world by circulation . Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed "THE GRAY LADY", The New York Times
The New York Times
has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record "
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Pétion-Ville
PéTION-VILLE is a commune and a suburb of Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
, Haiti
Haiti
, in the hills east and separate from the city itself on the northern hills of the Massif de la Selle. Founded in 1831 by then president Jean-Pierre Boyer , it was named after Alexandre Sabès Pétion (1770–1818), the Haitian general and president later recognized as one of the country's four founding fathers. The district is primarily a residential and touristic area. It held a population of 283,052 at the 2003 Census, which was officially estimated to have reached 376,834 in 2015. Many diplomats, foreign businessmen, and a large number of wealthy citizens do business and reside in Pétion-Ville
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Mulatto
MULATTO is a term used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. In English, the term is today generally confined to historical contexts
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Haiti
Coordinates : 19°00′N 72°25′W / 19.000°N 72.417°W / 19.000; -72.417 Republic
Republic
of Haiti * République d'Haïti (French ) * Repiblik Ayiti ( Haitian Creole ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Liberté, égalité, fratern
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Dictator
A DICTATOR is a political leader who wields absolute power . A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship . The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium ). Like the term "tyrant " (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat ", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet it had rare modern titular use. In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power , especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Jean-Claude Duvalier
JEAN-CLAUDE DUVALIER (French pronunciation: ​ ), nicknamed “BABY DOC” ( Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
: Bebe Dòk) (3 July 1951 – 4 October 2014), was the President of Haiti from 1971 until he was overthrown by a popular uprising in 1986. He succeeded his father François "Papa Doc" Duvalier as the ruler of Haiti
Haiti
after the latter's death in 1971. After assuming power, he introduced cosmetic changes to his father's regime and delegated much authority to his advisors. Thousands of Haitians were killed or tortured, and hundreds of thousands fled the country during his presidency. He maintained a notoriously lavish lifestyle (including a state-sponsored US$  2 million wedding in 1980) while poverty among his people remained the most widespread of any country in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere

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