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Simon Arnauld, Marquis De Pomponne
Simon Arnauld de Pomponne, Seigneur and then Marquis
Marquis
(1682) of Pomponne
Pomponne
(Paris, November 1618 – Fontainebleau, 26 September 1699) was a French diplomat and minister.Contents1 Early life 2 Early career 3 The Diplomat 4 Later years 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Simon Arnauld was born in Paris
Paris
in 1618. He was son of Robert Arnauld d'Andilly, governor of Monsieur and "intendant d'armée" under Richelieu, and of Catherine Le Fevre de la Boderie
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Lord
Lord
Lord
is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.[1][2] The
The
appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom, or are entitled to courtesy titles
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François-Michel Le Tellier, Marquis De Louvois
François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis
Marquis
de Louvois (18 January 1641 – 16 July 1691) was the French Secretary of State for War
War
for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV. Louvois and his father, Michel le Tellier, would increase the French Army
French Army
to 400,000 soldiers, an army that would fight four wars between 1667 and 1713. He is commonly referred to as "Louvois".Contents1 Early life 2 Work 3 Later life 4 Legacy 5 Family 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Louvois was born in Paris
Paris
on 18 January 1641, to Michel Le Tellier,[1] and Elisabeth Turpin.[2] Louvois received instructions from his father in the management of state affairs
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Port-Royal-des-Champs
Coordinates: 48°44′39″N 2°0′58″E / 48.74417°N 2.01611°E / 48.74417; 2.01611Plan of Port-Royal-des-Champs, engraving by Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, c. 1710Port-Royal-des-Champs was an abbey of Cistercian nuns
Cistercian nuns
in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse
Vallée de Chevreuse
southwest of Paris
Paris
that launched a number of culturally important institutions.Contents1 History 2 Museums 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksHistory[edit] The abbey was established in 1204, but became famous when its discipline was reformed in 1609 by its abbess, Mother Marie Angelique Arnauld (1591-1661). The Arnauld family became its patrons and the abbey's subsequent history was directed by a number of the members of that family
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Marquis
A marquess (UK: /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/;[1] French: marquis, [mɑʁki];[2] Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe
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Louis XIV Of France
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Nicolas Fouquet
Nicolas Fouquet, marquis de Belle-Île, vicomte de Melun et Vaux (27 January 1615 – 23 March 1680) was the Superintendent of Finances
Superintendent of Finances
in France
France
from 1653 until 1661 under King Louis XIV. He had a glittering career, and acquired enormous wealth. He fell out of favor, accused of peculation (maladministration of the state's funds) and lèse-majesté (actions harmful to the well-being of the monarch). The king had him imprisoned from 1661 until his death in 1680
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Verdun
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Imperial City of Verdun Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire? – 1552Coat of armsCapital VerdunGovernment RepublicHistorical era Middle Ages •  Established Uncertain Enter start year •  Three Bis
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 5
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Triple Alliance (1668)
The Triple Alliance of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces was formed in 1668 to support Spain
Spain
against France. In 1667, Louis XIV had invaded and conquered the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium) and the Franche-Comté
Franche-Comté
in the War of Devolution. Louis had decided to invade these Spanish possessions on loose legal premises involving his marriage to the Spanish princess Maria Theresa. The Triple Alliance was formed in response to these incursons. However, the alliance never had to engage in combat; the potential power of the Triple Alliance and Spain
Spain
together was enough of a threat to force Louis to halt his offensive, and concede most of his gains. He signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Spain, returning the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
and the Franche-Comté
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Mantua
Mantua
Mantua
(Italian: Mantova [ˈmantova] ( listen); Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua
Mantua
became Italian Capital of Culture. In 2017, Mantua will also be European Capital of Gastronomy, included in the Eastern Lombardy
Lombardy
District (together with the cities of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona). In 2007, Mantua's centro storico (old town) and Sabbioneta
Sabbioneta
were declared by UNESCO
UNESCO
to be a World Heritage Site. Mantua's historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
has made it one of the main artistic, cultural, and especially musical hubs of Northern Italy and the country as a whole
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Treaty Of Nijmegen
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen
Nijmegen
(Traités de Paix de Nimègue; German: Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen
Nijmegen
between August 1678 and December 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. The most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic, and placed the northern border of France in very nearly its modern position.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Treaties signed in Nijmegen 3 Terms 4 Culture 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The Franco-Dutch War
Franco-Dutch War
of 1672–78 was the source of all the other wars that were ended formally at Nijmegen
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Conseil Du Roi
The Conseil du Roi (French pronunciation: ​[kɔ̃sɛj dy ʁwa]; French for "The King's Council"), also known as the Royal Council, is a general term for the administrative and governmental apparatus around the king of France during the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
designed to prepare his decisions and give him advice. It should not be confused with the role and title of a "Conseil du Roi", a type of public prosecutor in the French legal system at the same period. One of the established principles of the French monarchy was that the king could not act without the advice of his council. Under Charles V, it was put forward that the king made decisions only after "good and careful deliberation" (French: bonne et mûre délibération), and this principle was maintained by his successors; the closing formula of royal acts "le roi en son conseil" expressed this deliberative aspect
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Fontainebleau
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
(/ˈfɒntɪnˌbloʊ/; French pronunciation: ​[fɔ̃tɛnblo])[1] is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres (34.5 mi) south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne
Seine-et-Marne
department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau
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Herbert H. Rowen
Herbert Harvey Rowen (22 October 1916 in Brooklyn, New York
Brooklyn, New York
– 31 March 1999 in Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania), was a noted American historian of Early Modern Europe
Early Modern Europe
and "arguably the most important English-speaking historian of the Dutch Republic since John Lothrop Motley."[1]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Academic career 3 Published works 4 SourcesEarly life and education[edit] The son of Joseph M. Rowen, a teacher, and his wife, Sarah Gordon Rowen, Herbert Rowen was educated entirely in New York City, from his first year in grade school through his doctorate. He earned his [B.S.S.] degree in 1936 at City College of New York
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