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Sima Qian
Sima Qian
Sima Qian
(/ˈsiːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/;[1] Chinese: 司馬遷; Wade–Giles: Ssu-ma Ch'ien /ˈsuːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/),[2] was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220)
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Li Guangli
Li Guangli (died 88 BC) was a Chinese general of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and a member of the favoured Li family. Li was a brother-in-law of Emperor Wu, whose favourite concubine was Lady Li. He was the chosen general in the War of the Heavenly Horses. His supplies for his second sortie are described as being 100,000 cattle, 30,000 horse, and many mules and camels.[1] Li besieged the city of Osh
Osh
(in present-day Kyrgyzstan) to obtain certain fine horses of the Ferghana
Ferghana
that had been demanded by the Han Empire but refused. He was given the title "General of Osh" (貳師將軍) in expectation of success.[2] He diverted the river that supplied the inner city with water, and "received three thousand horses in tribute."[3] In 90 BC, when Li was campaigning in the north against the Xiongnu Empire, his wife was imprisoned in the capital after being involved in a scandal
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Huai'an
223000, 223200, 223300 (Urban center) 211600, 211700, 223100, 223400 (Other areas) (Other areas)Area code(s) 517GDP ¥245.54 billion (2014) GDP
GDP
per capita ¥50,736 (2014)Major Nationalities HanCounty-level divisions 8Township-level divisions 127License Plate Prefix 苏HWebsite huaian.gov.cn Huai'an
Huai'an
("Hoaigan"). Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665Qingjiangpu ("Siampu"). Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665 Huai'an
Huai'an
(Chinese: 淮安; pinyin: Huái'ān), formerly called Huaiyin (simplified Chinese: 淮阴; traditional Chinese: 淮陰; pinyin: Huáiyīn) until 2001, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province of Eastern China
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Ningyuan County
Ningyuan County
Ningyuan County
(simplified Chinese: 宁远县; traditional Chinese: 寧遠縣; pinyin: Níngyuǎn Xiàn) is a county of Hunan
Hunan
Province, China, it is under the administration of Yongzhou
Yongzhou
prefecture-level City.[4] Located on the southern part of the province, the county is bordered to the north by Qiyang County, to the northeast by Xintian County, to the east by Jiahe County, to the southeast by Lanshan County, to the southwest by Jianghua and Dao Counties, to the northwest by Shuangpai County
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Shun (Chinese Leader)
Shun (Chinese: 舜; pinyin: Shùn), also known as Emperor Shun (Chinese: 帝舜; pinyin: Dìshùn) and Chonghua (Chinese: 重華; pinyin: Chónghuá), was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Oral tradition holds that he lived sometime between 2294 and 2184 BC.Contents1 Names 2 Life of Shun 3 Legends 4 Alternative biography 5 Events of Shun's reign 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksNames[edit] Shun's ancestral name (姓) is Yao (姚), his clan name (氏) is Youyu (有虞). His given name was Chonghua (重華). Shun is sometimes referred to as the Great Shun (大舜) or as Yu Shun (虞舜)
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Miluo River
The Miluo River
Miluo River
(traditional Chinese: 汨羅江; simplified Chinese: 汨罗江; pinyin: Mìluójiāng, and with modified Wade–Giles using the form Mi-lo) is located on the eastern bank of Dongting Lake, the largest tributary of the Xiang River
Xiang River
in the northern Hunan
Hunan
Province. It is an important river in the Dongting Lake
Dongting Lake
watershed,[1] known as the location of the ritual suicide in 278 BC of Qu Yuan, a poet of Chu state during the Warring States period, in protest against the corruption of the era.[2] Originating in Xiushui County of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province, the Miluo river is about 400 kilometres (250 mi) long. It passes Pingjiang county in Hunan
Hunan
and empties into Dongting Lake
Dongting Lake
in Miluo city
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Hunan Province
Hunan
Hunan
is the 7th most populous province of China
China
and the 10th most extensive by area
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Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an
is the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China.[3] One of the oldest cities in China,
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Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi
Shaanxi
(Chinese: 陕西; pinyin: Shǎnxī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan
Henan
(E), Hubei
Hubei
(SE), Chongqing
Chongqing
(S), Sichuan
Sichuan
(SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia
Ningxia
(NW), and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an
Xi'an
– which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao
Fenghao
and Chang'an
Chang'an
– is the provincial capital
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Qufu
Qufu
Qufu
(pronounced [tɕʰý.fû]; Chinese: 曲阜) is a city in southwestern Shandong
Shandong
Province, near the eastern coast of China. It is located about 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of the provincial capital Jinan
Jinan
and 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu
Qufu
has an urban population of about 60,000, and the entire administrative region has about 650,000 inhabitants. Qufu
Qufu
is best known as the hometown of Confucius, who is traditionally believed to have been born at nearby Mount Ni. The city contains numerous historic palaces, temples and cemeteries. The three most famous cultural sites of the city, collectively known as San Kong (三孔), i.e
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Courtesy Name
A courtesy name (Chinese: 字, zi), also known as a style name,[1] is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.[2] This practice is a tradition in East Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam.[3] Formerly in China, the zi would replace a male's given name when he turned twenty, as a symbol of adulthood and respect.[citation needed] It could be given either by the parents or by the first personal teacher on the first day of family school. Females might substitute their given name for a zi upon marriage
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect
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