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Signal Transduction
Signal transduction
Signal transduction
is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used.[1] The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events.[2] At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location
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Transduction (physiology)
In physiology, sensory transduction is the conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another
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Dopamine
Dopamine
Dopamine
(DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine
Dopamine
is also synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. The anticipation of most types of rewards increase the level of dopamine in the brain,[2] and many addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity
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Fibronectin
1E88, 1E8B, 1FBR, 1FNA, 1FNF, 1FNH, 1J8K, 1O9A, 1OWW, 1Q38, 1QGB, 1QO6, 1TTF, 1TTG, 2CG6, 2CG7, 2CK2, 2CKU, 2EC3, 2FN2, 2FNB, 2GEE, 2H41, 2H45, 2HA1, 2OCF, 2RKY, 2RKZ, 2RL0, 3CAL, 3EJH, 3GXE, 3M7P, 3MQL, 3R8Q, 3ZRZ, 4GH7, 4JE4, 4JEG, 4LXO, 4MMX, 4MMY, 4MMZ, 4PZ5, 2N1K, 5DC4, 5DC0, 5DC9, 3T1WIdentifiersAliases FN1, CIG, ED-B, FINC, FN, FNZ, GFND, GFND2, LETS, MSF, fibronectin 1, SMDCFExternal IDs OMIM: 135600 MGI: 95566 HomoloGene: 1533 GeneCards: FN1 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr.
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Hyaluronan
Hyaluronic acid
Hyaluronic acid
(HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues
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CD44
1POZ, 1UUH, 2I83, 4PZ3, 4PZ4IdentifiersAliases CD44, CDW44, CSPG8, ECMR-III, HCELL, HUTCH-I, IN, LHR, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, Pgp1, CD44
CD44
molecule (Indian blood group)External IDs OMIM: 107269 MGI: 88338 HomoloGene: 508 GeneCards: CD44 Gene
Gene

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Steroid Hormones
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into two classes: corticosteroids (typically made in the adrenal cortex, hence cortico-) and sex steroids (typically made in the gonads or placenta). Within those two classes are five types according to the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids (corticosteroids), androgens, estrogens, and progestogens (sex steroids). Vitamin D
Vitamin D
derivatives are a sixth closely related hormone system with homologous receptors. They have some of the characteristics of true steroids as receptor ligands. Steroid
Steroid
hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury
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Promoter (biology)
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA
DNA
that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA
DNA
(towards the 5'
5'
region of the sense strand)
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Odorants
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical compound has a smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose. Generally molecules meeting this specification have molecular weights of <300. Flavors affect both the sense of taste and smell, whereas fragrances affect only smell. Flavors tend to be naturally occurring, and fragrances tend to be synthetic.[1] Aroma compounds can be found in food, wine, spices, floral scent, perfumes, fragrance oils, and essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during the ripening of fruits and other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation
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Endorphins
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine"[note 1]) are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals. They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. The term "endorphins" implies a pharmacological activity (analogous to the activity of the corticosteroid category of biochemicals) as opposed to a specific chemical formulation
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Neuron
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell (biology)cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized connections called synapses. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons
respond to one particular type of stimulus such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain
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Epinephrine
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.[3][4] Epinephrine
Epinephrine
is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons.[3] It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation, and blood sugar.[5][6] It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors.[6] It is found in many animals and some single cell organisms.[7][8] Napoleon Cybulski
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Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish—and it contains the majority of the nervous system. Many consider the retina[2] and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II),[3][4] as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium[5] as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia. As such, the olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact with the environment, which opens up for therapeutic treatments. [5] The CNS is contained within the dorsal body cavity, with the brain housed in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal canal
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Adrenal Medulla
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.Contents1 Basic 2 Function 3 Origin 4 Pathology 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBasic[edit] The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In fact, these adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism
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ErbB
The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its first discovered member. In humans, the family includes Her1 (EGFR, ErbB1), Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3), and Her4 (ErbB4). The gene symbol, ErbB, is derived from the name of a viral oncogene to which these receptors are homologous: erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease,[1] while excessive ErbB signaling is associated with the development of a wide variety of types of solid tumor.[2] ErbB protein family signaling is important for development. For example, ErbB-2 and erbB-4 knockout mice die at midgestation leads to deficient cardiac function associated with a lack of myocardial ventricular trabeculation and display abnormal development of the peripheral nervous system[3]
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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