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Sighişoara
SIGHIșOARA (Romanian pronunciation: ; German : Schäßburg, pronounced ; Hungarian : Segesvár, pronounced ( listen ); Latin : Castrum Sex) is a city on the Târnava Mare River in Mureș County , Romania
Romania
. Located in the historic region of Transylvania
Transylvania
, Sighișoara has a population of 28,102 according to the 2011 census. The city administers seven villages: Angofa, Aurel Vlaicu, Hetiur, Rora, Șoromiclea, Venchi and Viilor. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demographics and name * 3 Sights * 3.1 Towers * 3.2 Churches * 3.3 Civil architecture * 4 Natives * 5 International relations * 5.1 Twin towns — sister cities * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links HISTORY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Wallachia
WALLACHIA or WALACHIA (Romanian : Țara Românească pronounced ; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet : Цѣра Румѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania . It is situated north of the Lower Danube
Danube
and south of the Southern Carpathians . Wallachia
Wallachia
is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia (Greater Wallachia) and Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia). Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as MUNTENIA through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections
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Baroque
The BAROQUE (US : /bəˈroʊk/ or UK : /bəˈrɒk/ ) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Neoclassical style . It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1740s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant variant, called Rococo , which appeared in central Europe until the late 18th century
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Voivode
VOIVODE (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/ ) (Old Slavic , literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European (Slavic as well as Romanian ) title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans
Balkans
. The title voievodos (Greek : βοέβοδος) was first used in the work of Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos "About administration of empire" to identify Hungarian military leaders. In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Vlad Dracul
VLAD II, also known as VLAD DRACUL or VLAD THE DRAGON (before 1395 – November 1447), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. Born an illegitimate son of Mircea I of Wallachia , he spent his youth at the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg , who made him a member of the Order of the Dragon in 1431 (hence his sobriquet). Sigismund also recognized him as the lawful voivode of Wallachia, allowing him to settle in the nearby Transylvania . Vlad could not assert his claim during the life of his half-brother, Alexander I Aldea , who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Ottoman Sultan , Murad II . After Alexander Aldea died in 1436, Vlad seized Wallachia with Hungarian support. Following the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1437, Hungary's position weakened, causing him to pay homage to Murad II, which included participating in Murad II's invasion of Transylvania in the summer of 1438
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Vlad III The Impaler
VLAD III, known as VLAD THE IMPALER (Romanian : Vlad Țepeș, pronunciation: \'ts\' in \'cats\'">t͡sepeʃ] ) or VLAD DRACULA (/ˈdrækjələ/ ; 1428/31 – 1476/77), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia
Wallachia
three times between 1448 and his death. He was the second son of Vlad Dracul , who became the ruler of Wallachia
Wallachia
in 1436. Vlad and his younger brother, Radu , were held as hostages in the Ottoman Empire from 1442 to secure their father's loyalty. Vlad's father and eldest brother, Mircea , were murdered after John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
, Regent-Governor of Hungary, invaded Wallachia
Wallachia
in 1447. Hunyadi installed Vlad's second cousin, Vladislav II , as the new voivode. Hunyadi launched a military campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1448, and Vladislav accompanied him
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Handicraft
A HANDICRAFT, sometimes more precisely expressed as ARTISANAL HANDICRAFT or HANDMADE, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft , and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra
Dhokra
; this is a sort of metal casting has been used in India
India
for over 4,000 years and is still used
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Guild
A GUILD /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association , trade union , a cartel , and a secret society . They often depended on grants of letters patent by a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. One of the legacies of the guilds, the elevated Windsor Guildhall
Guildhall
was originally a meeting place for guilds, as well as magistrates' seat and town hall
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Chronicle
A CHRONICLE (Latin : chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line . Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler. This is in contrast to a narrative or history, which sets selected events in a meaningful interpretive context and excludes those the author does not see as important. Where a chronicler obtained the information varies; some chronicles are written from first-hand knowledge, some are from witnesses or participants in events, still others are accounts passed mouth to mouth prior to being written down. Some used written material: Charters, letters, or the works of earlier chroniclers. Still others are tales of such unknown origins so as to hold mythical status
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Central Europe
CENTRAL EUROPE lies between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Europe
Western Europe
. The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity . Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI , Centrope and the Visegrád Four . While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
as very highly developed . Central Europe
Europe
according to The World Factbook (2009), Encyclopædia Britannica , and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (1998) Central Europe
Europe
according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography)
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe
Western Europe
, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Hungarian Kings
This is a LIST OF HUNGARIAN MONARCHS, which includes the grand princes (895–1000) and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary (1000–1918). The Principality of Hungary established 895 or 896, following the 9th century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin . The Kingdom of Hungary existed from 1000 (or arguably from 1001; the coronation of Saint Stephen ) until 1918 (when Charles IV "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate). The Árpád dynasty , the male-line descendants of Grand Prince Árpád , ruled Hungary continuously from 895 to 1301
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Romanian Language
ROMANIAN (obsolete spellings RUMANIAN, ROUMANIAN; autonym: limba română ( listen ), "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken by around 24-26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania
Romania
and Moldova
Moldova
, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It has official status in Romania
Romania
and the Republic of Moldova. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian , Megleno-Romanian , and Istro-Romanian
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Sándor Petőfi
SáNDOR PETőFI (born Petrovics; Hungarian : Petőfi Sándor pronounced ; Slovak : Alexander
Alexander
Petrovič; Serbian : Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849 ) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet , and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
. He is the author of the Nemzeti dal (National Song), which is said to have inspired the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
that grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
. It is most likely that he died in the Battle of Segesvár , one of the last battles of the war
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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