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Sighişoara
Sighișoara
Sighișoara
(Romanian pronunciation: [siɡiˈʃo̯ara]; German: Schäßburg, pronounced [ˈʃɛsbʊɐ̯k]; Hungarian: Segesvár, pronounced [ˈʃɛɡɛʃvaːr] ( listen); Latin: Castrum Sex) is a city on the Târnava Mare River
Târnava Mare River
in Mureș County, Romania. Located in the historic region of Transylvania, Sighișoara has a population of 28,102 according to the 2011 census
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Wallachia
Wallachia or Walachia (Romanian: Țara Românească pronounced [ˈt͡sara romɨˈne̯askə]; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia (Greater Wallachia) and Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia). Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections. Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary
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Merchants
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. A merchant historically was anyone who was involved in business as long as industry, commerce, and trade have existed. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In modern times, the term occasionally has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fueling economic development and growth.A scale or balance is often used to symbolise a merchantMerchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in trade and commerce. Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phoenicia and Rome
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Transylvanian Saxons
The Transylvanian Saxons
Saxons
(German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjer Såksen; Romanian: Sași ardeleni, sași transilvăneni; Hungarian: Erdélyi szászok) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania
Transylvania
(German: Siebenbürgen) from the mid 12th c
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Kingdom Of Hungary
Magyar Királyság  (Hungarian) Regnum Hungariae  (Latin) Königreich Ungarn  (German)1000–1918 1920–1946Flag (1867-1918)Coat of armsMotto Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae[1] "Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"Anthem Himnusz HymnRoyal anthem God save, God protect Our Emperor, Our Country!Kingdoms of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914Capital BudapestHistorical capitals:Esztergom (10th to mid-13th century) Buda (mid-13th century to 1541)a Pressburg (1536–1783) Debrecen (1849) Székesfehérvár (place of diets, royal seat, crowning and burial site from 1000 to 1543)Languages Official languages:Latin (1000–1784; 1790–1844) German (1784–1790; 1849–1867) Hungarian (1836–1849; 1867–1946)Other spoken languages: Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Italian, Ruthenian, Carpathian Romani,
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Chronicle
A chronicle (Latin: chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler
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Central Europe
Central Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Eastern Europe
Europe
and Western Europe.[1][2][3] The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity.[4][5][6][7][8][7][9][10][11][12][13] Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening",[14] with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope
Centrope
and the Visegrád
Visegrád
Four
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Guild
A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. They often depended on grants of letters patent by a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places
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Handicraft
A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft, and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra; this is a sort of metal casting has been used in India
India
for over 4,000 years and is still used
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Baroque
The Baroque
Baroque
(US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style
Renaissance style
and preceded the Neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant
Protestant
architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany
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Voivode
Voivode[1] (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/) (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans. The title voevodas (Greek: βοεβόδας) was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
De Administrando Imperio to identify Hungarian military leaders.[2] In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Countries Of The World
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (191 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (15 states, out of which there are 5 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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Vlad Dracul
Vlad II (Romanian: Vlad al II-lea), also known as Vlad Dracul (Vlad al II-lea Dracul) or Vlad the Dragon (before 1395 – November 1447), was Voivode of Wallachia from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. Born an illegitimate son of Mircea I of Wallachia, he spent his youth at the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg, who made him a member of the Order of the Dragon in 1431 (hence his sobriquet). Sigismund also recognized him as the lawful voivode of Wallachia, allowing him to settle in the nearby Transylvania. Vlad could not assert his claim during the life of his half-brother, Alexander I Aldea, who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Ottoman Sultan, Murad II. After Alexander Aldea died in 1436, Vlad seized Wallachia with Hungarian support. Following the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1437, Hungary's position weakened, causing him to pay homage to Murad II, which included participating in Murad II's invasion of Transylvania in the summer of 1438
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Vlad III The Impaler
Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș, pronunciation: [ˈvlad ˈt͡sepeʃ]) or Vlad Dracula (/ˈdrækjələ/; 1428/31 – 1476/77), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia three times between 1448 and his death. He was the second son of Vlad Dracul, who became the ruler of Wallachia in 1436. Vlad and his younger brother, Radu, were held as hostages in the Ottoman Empire in 1442 to secure their father's loyalty. Vlad's father and eldest brother, Mircea, were murdered after John Hunyadi, regent-governor of Hungary, invaded Wallachia in 1447. Hunyadi installed Vlad's second cousin, Vladislav II, as the new voivode. Hunyadi launched a military campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1448, and Vladislav accompanied him. Vlad broke into Wallachia with Ottoman support in October, but Vladislav returned and Vlad sought refuge in the Ottoman Empire before the end of the year. Vlad went to Moldavia in 1449 or 1450, and later to Hungary
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