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Sidirokastro
Sidirokastro
Sidirokastro
(Greek: Σιδηρόκαστρο; Bulgarian and Macedonian: Валовища/Валовишта Valovišta; Turkish: Demirhisar) is a town and a former municipality in the Serres
Serres
regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Sintiki, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.[2] It is built near the fertile valley of the river Strymonas, on the bank of the Krousovitis River. Sidirokastro
Sidirokastro
is situated on the European route E79
European route E79
and the main road from northern Greece (Thessaloniki) to Bulgaria
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Central Powers
The Central Powers
Central Powers
(German: Mittelmächte; Hungarian: Központi hatalmak; Turkish: İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Bulgarian: Централни сили, translit. Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance[1] (German: Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18). It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1879
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Struma (river)
The Struma or Strymónas (Bulgarian Струма, pronounced [ˈstruma], Greek Στρυμόνας [striˈmonas], Turkish (Struma) Karasu 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Greece. Its ancient name was Strymōn (Greek: Στρυμών [stryˈmɔːn]). Its catchment area is 10,800 square kilometres (4,200 square miles). It takes its source from the Vitosha
Vitosha
Mountain in Bulgaria, runs first westward, then southward, enters Greek territory at the Kula village. In Greece
Greece
it is the main waterway feeding and exiting from Lake Kerkini, a significant centre for migratory wildfowl. The river flows into the Strymonian Gulf
Strymonian Gulf
in Aegean Sea, near Amphipolis
Amphipolis
in the Serres regional unit
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Belasica
Belasica
Belasica
(Macedonian and Bulgarian:  Беласица (help·info), also translit. Belasitsa or Belasitza, Ottoman Turkish:[1] بلش Turkish: Beleş), Belles (Greek: Μπέλλες, Bélles) or Kerkini (Κερκίνη, Kerkíni;), is a mountain range in the region of Macedonia in Southeastern Europe, shared by northwestern Greece
Greece
(about 45%), southeastern Republic of Macedonia (35%) and southwestern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(20%).Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Honour 4 Photo gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] The mountain range is about 60 km (37.28 mi) long and 7 to 9 km (4.35 to 5.59 mi) wide and is situated just northeast of Dojran Lake. The highest point is Radomir (Kalabak) at 2,029 m, with elevation otherwise ranging between 300 and 1900 m above sea level. The borders of all three countries meet at Tumba Peak
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Orvilos
Slavyanka (Bulgarian: Славянка, "Slavic woman") or Orvilos (Greek: Όρβηλος),[1] formerly known as Alibotush (from Turkish Alibotuş) and Kitka Planina (Китка планина), is a mountain located on the border of southwestern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and northernmost Greece, located south of the Pirin Mountains
Pirin Mountains
and connected with it by the Paril Saddle. The highest peak of Slavyanka is Gotsev Vrah at 2,212 m, while other notable peaks include Golyam Tsarev Vrah (2,186 m), Malak Tsarev Vrah (2,087 m), Shabran (2,196 m) and Salyuva Dzhamiya (2,027 m). The Bulgarian section of the mountain is part of the Ali Botush Reserve. The massif is dome-shaped and has very steep ridges. Slavyanka has a pronounced karst character and thus features over 30 caves, attracting many speleologists
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Sintians
The Sintians
Sintians
(/ˈsɪntiənz/; Greek: Σίντιες), "the Raiders, the Plunderers", from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
sinteis, "destructive"[1]) were known to the Greeks as pirates and raiders;[2] they are also referred to as a Thracian people[3][4] who once inhabited the area of Sintice[5] and the island of Lemnos
Lemnos
which was also called in ancient times Sinteis.[citation needed]Approximate location of the SintiThe Sintians
Sintians
worshipped Hephaestus
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Kaza
A kaza (Arabic: قضاء‎, qaḍāʾ, pronounced [qɑˈd̪ˤɑːʔ], plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah, pronounced [ˈɑqd̪ˤijɑ]; Ottoman Turkish: kazâ‎[1]) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and currently used in several of its successor states
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Georgi Todorov (general)
Russo-Turkish War Serbo-Bulgarian War Balkan WarsBattle of Bulair Battle of KalimantsiFirst World WarBattle of Ovche Pole Battle of Dobro PoleAwardsGeorgi Stoyanov Todorov (Bulgarian: Георги Тодоров) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad
Bolgrad
(contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
(1885), Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and First World War
First World War
(1914–1918).Contents1 Biography1.1 Balkan Wars 1.2 First World War2 Honours and awards 3 References 4 Further readingBiography[edit] At the age of 19, he volunteered in the Bulgarian Corps (Opalchentsi) during the Russo-Turkish Liberation War. After the liberation, he graduated the first course of the Military School in Sofia
Sofia
(1879)
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Roupel Fortress
Fort Roupel (Greek: Οχυρό Ρούπελ) is a fortress at the north border of Central Macedonia, Greece, built in 1914. It became part of the fortifications of the Metaxas Line in the 1930s and became famous for its defence during the German invasion of Greece in April 1941. The Rupel fortifications are not far from the Serres-Promachonas national road, which leads to the Greek-Bulgarian border. They are just a short distance from the border in the narrow Rupel Gorge, through which the Strymon River flows. This place is of strategic importance for entry to Greek or Bulgarian territory and was fortified in 1914. During World War I, on 25 May 1916, under German pressure, the Greek government ordered the surrender of the fortress to the Germans and their Bulgarian allies, without a shot being fired. The German-Bulgarian troops then proceeded to occupy most of eastern Macedonia without resistance
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Byzantine
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Axis Occupation Of Greece
The occupation of Greece
Greece
by the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
(Greek: Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece
Greece
to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece
Greece
since October 1940. Following the conquest of Crete, all of Greece
Greece
was occupied by June 1941. The occupation in the mainland lasted until Germany and its ally Bulgaria
Bulgaria
were forced to withdraw under Allied pressure in early October 1944
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Basil II
Basil II (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025. He was known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus
Porphyrogenitus
and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I the Macedonian. He was the second longest reigning emperor after his brother Constantine VIII
Constantine VIII
whom he named co-emperor in 962, but outlived him by 3 years. The early years of his long reign were dominated by civil war against powerful generals from the Anatolian aristocracy. Following their submission, Basil oversaw the stabilization and expansion of the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire, and above all, the final and complete subjugation of Bulgaria, the Empire's foremost European foe, after a prolonged struggle
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Lake Kerkini
Lake Kerkini
Lake Kerkini
(Greek: Λίμνη Κερκίνη), is an artificial reservoir that was created in 1932, and then redeveloped in 1980, on the site of what was previously an extremely extensive marshland. Before 1932, there were irregular marsh lakes on Strymon, one of them called "Podkova" Ottoman Turkish: ݒودقوه كولي Podkova Gölü.[1] Lake Kerkini
Lake Kerkini
is now one of, if not the, premier birding site in Greece, and, as it is situated along the migratory flyway for migratory birds en route to the Aegean Sea, the Balkan region, the Black Sea, the Hungarian steppes and beyond it experiences an interesting migration. In the flat and semi-mountainous area, important hydrobiospheres are developing which are of great international significance and acceptance. The most essential hydrobiosphere is the one in Kerkini lake
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