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Shout Chorus
A refrain (from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
refringere, "to repeat", and later from Old French
Old French
refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song. Poetic fixed forms that feature refrains include the villanelle, the virelay, and the sestina. The use of refrains is particularly associated with where the verse-chorus-verse song structure typically places a refrain in almost every song
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Refrain (other)
A refrain is a line or lines that is repeated in a verse or song. Refrain
Refrain
may also refer to:"Refrain" (Mamoru Miyano song) "Refrain" (Lys Assia song) by Lys Assia, won Eurovision Song Contest 1956 Refrain
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Tin Pan Alley
Coordinates: 40°44′44″N 73°59′22.5″W / 40.74556°N 73.989583°W / 40.74556; -73.989583Buildings of Tin Pan Alley, 1910[1]The same buildings, 2011 Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The name originally referred to a specific place: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues in the Flower District[2] of Manhattan, and a plaque exists (see below) on the sidewalk on 28th Street between Broadway and Sixth commemorates it.[3][4][5][6] The start of Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
is less clear cut
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Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Gabriel Charles Dante
Dante
Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti (/ˈdænti ˈɡeɪbriəl rəˈzɛti/),[1] was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
in 1848 with William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris
William Morris
and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement. Rossetti's art was characterised by its sensuality and its medieval revivalism. His early poetry was influenced by John Keats
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Nonsense
Nonsense
Nonsense
is a communication, via speech, writing, or any other symbolic system, that lacks any coherent meaning. Sometimes in ordinary usage, nonsense is synonymous with absurdity or the ridiculous. Many poets, novelists and songwriters have used nonsense in their works, often creating entire works using it for reasons ranging from pure comic amusement or satire, to illustrating a point about language or reasoning. In the philosophy of language and philosophy of science, nonsense is distinguished from sense or meaningfulness, and attempts have been made to come up with a coherent and consistent method of distinguishing sense from nonsense
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Solfege
In music, solfège (/ˈsɒlfɛʒ/,[1] also US: /sɒlˈfɛʒ/, French: [sɔl.fɛʒ]) or solfeggio (/sɒlˈfɛdʒioʊ/, Italian: [solˈfeddʒo]), also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music. Solfège
Solfège
is a form of solmization, and though the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, the systems used in other music cultures such as swara, durar mufaṣṣalāt and Jianpu
Jianpu
are discussed in their respective articles. Syllables are assigned to the notes of the scale and enable the musician to audiate, or mentally hear, the pitches of a piece of music which he or she is seeing for the first time and then to sing them aloud. Through the Renaissance (and much later in some shapenote publications) various interlocking 4, 5 and 6-note systems were employed to cover the octave
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Syllable
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing
Syllabic writing
began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Christmas Carol
A Christmas
Christmas
carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning "Christmas") is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas
Christmas
itself or during the surrounding holiday season
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[5][6][7] It shares land borders with Wales
Wales
to the west and Scotland
Scotland
to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Folksong
Folk music
Folk music
includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s
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Celtic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Thirty-two-bar Form
The thirty-two-bar form, also known as the AABA song form, American popular song form and the ballad form, is a song structure commonly found in Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
songs and other American popular music, especially in the first half of the 20th century.[2] As its alternate name AABA implies, this song form consists of four sections: an eight-bar A section; a second eight-bar A section (which may have slight changes from the first A section); an eight-bar B section, often with contrasting harmony or "feel"; and a final eight-bar A section
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Musicologist
Musicology
Musicology
(from Greek μουσική (mousikē), meaning 'music', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology
Musicology
is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.[1][2][3] Traditionally, historical musicology (commonly termed "music history") has been the most prominent sub-discipline of musicology. In the 2010s, historical musicology is one of several large musicology sub-disciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are approximately equal in size.[4] Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing
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Syntax
In linguistics, syntax (/ˈsɪntæks/[1][2]) is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.[3] The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic
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Jazz
Jazz
Jazz
is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States,[1] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.[2] Jazz
Jazz
is seen by many as 'America's classical music'.[3] Since the 1920s Jazz
Jazz
Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American
African-American
and European-American
European-American
musical parentage with a performance orientation.[4] Jazz
Jazz
is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation
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Arranger
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work.[1] It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration as the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, and endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety".[2]Contents1 Classical music 2 Popular music 3 Jazz 4 For instrumental groups4.1 Strings4.1.1 Size of the string section5 Further reading 6 See also 7 ReferencesClassical music[edit] Arrangement
Arrangement
and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre
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