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Shortwave
SHORTWAVE RADIO is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies , generally 1.6–30 MHz
MHz
(187.4–10.0 m), just above the medium wave AM broadcast band. Radio
Radio
waves in this band can be reflected or refracted from a layer of electrically charged atoms in the atmosphere called the ionosphere . Therefore, short waves directed at an angle into the sky can be reflected back to Earth at great distances, beyond the horizon. This is called skywave or skip propagation . Thus shortwave radio can be used for very long distance communication, in contrast to radio waves of higher frequency which travel in straight lines (line-of-sight propagation ) and are limited by the visual horizon, about 40 miles. Shortwave radio
Shortwave radio
is used for broadcasting of voice and music to shortwave listeners over very large areas; sometimes entire continents or beyond
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MHz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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ITU Region 1
In geography , REGIONS are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography ), human impact characteristics (human geography ), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography ). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans , and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and features
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Cape Verde
CAPE VERDE /ˌkeɪp ˈvɜːrd/ or CABO VERDE /kɑːboʊ ˈvɜːrdeɪ/ , /kæ-/ (Portuguese : Cabo Verde, pronounced ), officially the REPUBLIC OF CABO VERDE, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Located 570 kilometres (350 mi) west of the Cape Verde Peninsula in West Africa
Africa
, the islands cover a combined area of slightly over 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi). The Cape Verde
Cape Verde
archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants, privateers , and pirates
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ITU Region 2
In geography , REGIONS are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography ), human impact characteristics (human geography ), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography ). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans , and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and features
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" ANTHEM: " Deutschlandlied
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a TRANSMITTER or RADIO TRANSMITTER is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna . The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting , transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio , such as cell phones , wireless computer networks , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers , two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation , such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Cornwall
CORNWALL (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːlˌ -wəl/ , locally /ˈkɔːnwɔːl, -wəl/ ; Cornish : Kernow ) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England
England
within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea , to the south by the English Channel , and to the east by the county of Devon
Devon
, over the River Tamar . Cornwall
Cornwall
has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi). The administrative centre , and only city in Cornwall, is Truro , although the town of Falmouth has the largest population. Cornwall
Cornwall
forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall
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Austria
Coordinates : 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich (German ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German ) * Land of Mountains, Land by the River * Location of <
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Guglielmo Marconi
GUGLIELMO MARCONI, 1ST MARQUIS OF MARCONI (Italian: ; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi\'s law and a radio telegraph system. He is often credited as the inventor of radio , and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". Marconi was also an entrepreneur , businessman , and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897 (which became the Marconi Company
Marconi Company
). He succeeded in making an engineering and commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists
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General Post Office
The GENERAL POST OFFICE (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier. Similar General Post Offices were established across the British Empire
British Empire
. In 1969 the GPO was abolished and the assets transferred to The Post Office, changing it from a Department of State to a statutory corporation . In 1980 the telecommunications and postal sides were split prior to the splitting off of British Telecommunications
Telecommunications
into a totally separate publicly owned corporation the following year as a result of the British Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Act 1981. For the more recent history of the postal system in the United Kingdom, see the article Royal Mail and Post Office Ltd
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Submarine Communications Cable
A SUBMARINE COMMUNICATIONS CABLE is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean. The first submarine communications cables , laid in the 1850s, carried telegraphy traffic. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic, then data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data , which includes telephone, Internet
Internet
and private data traffic. Modern cables are typically about 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter and weigh around 2.5 tons per mile (1.4 tonnes per km) for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore
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Solar Flare
A SOLAR FLARE is a sudden flash of brightness observed near the Sun 's surface. It involves a very broad spectrum of emissions, an energy release of typically 1 × 1020 joules of energy for a well-observed event. A major event can emit up to 1 × 1025 joules (the latter is roughly the equivalent of 1 billion megatons of TNT , or over 400 times more energy than released from the impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 with Jupiter). Flares are often, but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection . The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth
Earth
a day or two after the event. The term is also used to refer to similar phenomena in other stars, where the term stellar flare applies
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Scattering
SCATTERING is a general physical process where some forms of radiation , such as light , sound , or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection . Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering
Scattering
may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons , photons and other particles. Examples include: cosmic ray scattering in the Earth's upper atmosphere; particle collisions inside particle accelerators ; electron scattering by gas atoms in fluorescent lamps; and neutron scattering inside nuclear reactors
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND (Māori : AOTEAROA ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, Fiji
Fiji
, and Tonga
Tonga
. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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