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Shkodër
Shkodër
Shkodër
or Shkodra (Albanian pronunciation: [ˈʃkɔdəɾ]), historically known as Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic. The city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans
Balkans
and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion, arts and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër
Shkodër
sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër
Lake Shkodër
and the foothills of the Albanian Alps.[1] Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by limestone and dolomite rocks. The lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe
Europe
close to the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official),
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Eqrem Çabej
Eqrem Çabej (Albanian pronunciation: [ˌɛcrɛm ˈt͡ʃabɛj]) (6 August 1908 – 13 August 1980) was an Albanian historical linguist and scholar who, through the publication of numerous studies gained a reputation as a key expert in the research into Albanian-language, literature, ethnology and linguistics.Contents1 Educational background 2 Career as an educator and scholar 3 Works and tributes 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEducational background[edit] He was born in Eskişehir, Turkey
Turkey
and completed his elementary education in Gjirokastër, southern Albania, in 1921.[1] He then left Albania, at the age of 12, and moved to Austria
Austria
to continue his studies: first in St. Pölten then in Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
(1923–26), where he obtained his bachelor's degree
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Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian
(/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (244–312),[3][5] was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian
Diocletian
rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus
Carus
and his son Numerian
Numerian
on campaign in Persia, Diocletian
Diocletian
was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian
Diocletian
defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian
Maximian
as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286
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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Praevalitana
Praevalitana
Praevalitana
(also Prevalitana, Prevaliana, Praevaliana or Prevalis) was a Late Roman province
Roman province
that existed between 284 and 476. It included parts of present-day Montenegro, northern Albania, and southwestern Serbia.Contents1 History1.1 Background2 Province2.1 Aftermath3 Cities 4 References 5 SourcesHistory[edit] Background[edit] The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
conquered the Adriatic-Balkanic region after the Third Illyrian War
Illyrian War
(168 BC), the Romans defeated Gentius, the last king of Illyria, at Scodra
Scodra
in 168 BC and captured him, bringing him to Rome in 165 BC. Four client-republics were set up, which were in fact controlled by Rome. Later, Illyricum was directly governed by Rome and organized as a Roman province, with Scodra
Scodra
as its capital
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Anicia (gens)
The gens Anicia was a plebeian family at Rome, mentioned first towards the end of the fourth century BC. The first of the Anicii to achieve prominence under the Republic was Lucius Anicius Gallus, who conducted the war against the Illyrii during the Third Macedonian War, in 168 BC. A noble family bore this name in the imperial era, and may have been descended from the Anicii of the Republic.[1]Contents1 Origin 2 Praenomina 3 Branches and cognomina 4 Members4.1 Anicii of the Republic 4.2 Imperial Anicii5 See also 6 Notes 7 SourcesOrigin[edit] The Anicii may have been from the Latin town of Praeneste. The earliest of the family to hold any curule magistracy at Rome bore the surname Praenestinus.[2] Praenomina[edit] The Anicii are known to have used the praenomina Lucius, Quintus, Marcus, Gnaeus, Titus, and Gaius.[1] Branches and cognomina[edit] The only major branch of the family during the Republic used the cognomen Gallus, which may refer to a cock, or to a Gaul
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Gentius
Gentius
Gentius
(Ancient Greek: Γένθιος, "Génthios"; fl. 181–168 BC) was a king of the Ardiaei, a powerful tribe in Illyria. He ruled in 181–168 BC,[1] being the last Ardiaei ruler. His name appears to derive from PIE *g'en- "to beget", cognate to Latin gens, gentis "kin, clan, race".[2] He was the son of Pleuratus III, a king who kept firm relations with Rome
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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List Of Largest Lakes Of Europe
This is a list of lakes of Europe
Europe
with an average area greater than 100 km²
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Dolomite
Dolomite
Dolomite
( /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.Contents1 History 2 Properties 3 Formation 4 Uses 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Most probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768.[6] In 1791, it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
(1750–1801), first in buildings of the old city of Rome, and later as samples collected in the mountains now known as the Dolomite Alps
Dolomite Alps
of northern Italy
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler
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