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Shirkuh
Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in Arabic: أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي‎), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin. His military and diplomatic efforts in Egypt
Egypt
were a key factor in establishing the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
family in that country.Contents1 Name 2 Origins and earlier career 3 Later career 4 Legacy 5 References 6 SourcesName[edit] Shirkuh
Shirkuh
is a Kurdish name which literally means "the lion (of the) mountain". His Arabic honorific Asad ad-Din similarly means "the lion of faith". In Latin, his name was rendered as "Siraconus"; William of Tyre, referring to the expedition of 1163, describes him as:"an able and energetic warrior, eager for glory and of wide experience in military affairs
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Columbia University Press
Columbia University
Columbia University
Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Principality Of Antioch
The Principality of Antioch
Antioch
was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade
First Crusade
which included parts of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa
County of Edessa
or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
to the south, Edessa
Edessa
to the east, and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It had roughly 20,000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians
Armenians
and Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself
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Crusader States
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece
Greece
and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
in the eastern Baltic area
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Vizier
A vizier (/vɪˈzɪər/, rarely /ˈvɪziər/;[1] Arabic: وزير‎ wazīr; Persian: وازیر‬‎ vazīr; Turkish: vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; Bengali: উজির ujira'; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر‬ vazeer, sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir), is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.[2] The Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian ki
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Baha Ad-Din Ibn Shaddad
Bahā' ad-Dīn Yusuf ibn Rafi ibn Shaddād (Arabic: بهاء الدين ابن شداد‎; the honorific title "Bahā' ad-Dīn" means "splendor of the faith"; sometimes known as Bohadin or Boha-Eddyn[1]) (5 March 1145 – 8 November 1234)[2] was a 12th-century Muslim jurist and scholar, a Kurdish[3] historian of great note, notable for writing a biography of Saladin
Saladin
whom he knew well.[4]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Ibn Shaddād was born in
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Peritonsillar Abscess
Peritonsillar abscess
Peritonsillar abscess
(PTA), also known as a quinsy, is pus due to an infection behind the tonsil.[2] Symptoms include fever, throat pain, trouble opening the mouth, and a change to the voice.[1] Pain is usually worse on one side.[1] Complications may include blockage of the airway or aspiration pneumonitis.[1] They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria.[1] Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis.[1] They do not typically occur in those who have had a tonsillectomy.[1] Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms.[1]
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Steven Runciman
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades
A History of the Crusades
(1951–54). His three-volume history has had a profound impact on common conceptions of the Crusades, primarily portraying the Crusaders negatively and the Muslims favourably. Runciman was a strong admirer of the Byzantine Empire, and consequently held a bias against the Crusaders for the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
evident in his work
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Jumada Al-Thani
Jumada al-Thani (Arabic: جمادى الثاني‎, also transliterated Ǧumādā aṮ-Ṯānī, IPA: [d͡ʒʊˈmæːdæ θˈθæːniː]; also pronounced Ǧamādā aṮ-Ṯānī, IPA: [d͡ʒæˈmæːdæ θˈθæːniː]) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. It is also known as Jumaada al-Akhir and Jumada al-Akhira (جمادى الآخر, also transliterated Ǧumādā al-ʾĀḫir/jumādā al-āḵir, IPA: [d͡ʒʊˈmæːdæ lˈʔæːxɪr]; also pronounced Ǧamādā alʾĀḫir/jamādā al-āḵir, IPA: [d͡ʒæˈmæːdæ lˈʔæːxɪr]). This is the sixth month of the Islamic calendar
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world (after Oxford University Press).[2][3][4][5] It also holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer.[6] The Press’s mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence".[7] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries
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Mosul
Mosul
Mosul
(Arabic: الموصل‎ al-Mawṣil, Kurdish: مووسڵ‎, Syriac: ܡܘܨܠ‎, translit. Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some 400 km (250 mi) north of Baghdad, Mosul
Mosul
stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh
Nineveh
on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul
Mosul
and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians,[4][5][6] Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians
Circassians
in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities
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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Tikrit
Tikrit
Tikrit
c. 2000 Tikrit
Tikrit
(Arabic: تكريت‎ Tikrīt, Classical Syriac: ܬܓܪܝܬ‎ Tagriṯ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located 140 kilometres (87 mi) northwest of Baghdad
Baghdad
and 220 kilometres (140 mi) southeast of Mosul
Mosul
on the Tigris
Tigris
River. It is the administrative center of the Saladin
Saladin
Governorate
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