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Ship Of Theseus
The ship of Theseus, also known as Theseus's paradox, is a thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. The paradox is most notably recorded by Plutarch
Plutarch
in Life of Theseus from the late first century. Plutarch
Plutarch
asked whether a ship that had been restored by replacing every single wooden part remained the same ship. The paradox had been discussed by other ancient philosophers such as Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Plato
Plato
prior to Plutarch's writings,[1] and more recently by Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
and John Locke
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Provenance
Provenance
Provenance
(from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.[1] The term was originally mostly used in relation to works of art but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including archaeology, paleontology, archives, manuscripts, printed books and science and computing. The primary purpose of tracing the provenance of an object or entity is normally to provide contextual and circumstantial evidence for its original production or discovery, by establishing, as far as practicable, its later history, especially the sequences of its formal ownership, custody and places of storage. The practice has a particular value in helping authenticate objects. Comparative techniques, expert opinions and the results of scientific tests may also be used to these ends, but establishing provenance is essentially a matter of documentation
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Final Cause
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[1][2] While there are cases where identifying a "cause" is difficult, or in which "causes" might merge, Aristotle
Aristotle
was convinced that his four "causes" provided an analytical scheme of general applicability.[3] Aitia, from Greek αἰτία, was the word that Aristotle
Aristotle
used to refer to the causal explanation that has traditionally been translated as "cause", but this specialized, technical, philosophical usage of the word "cause" does not correspond to its most usual uses in everyday language
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Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists. Scholars of jurisprudence, also known as jurists or legal theorists, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of the natural law, civil law, and the law of nations.[1] General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered
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USS Constellation (1854)
USS Constellation is a sloop-of-war, the last sail-only warship designed and built by the United States Navy. She was built in 1854, using a small amount of material salvaged from the frigate USS Constellation, which had been disassembled the year before. Despite being a single-gundeck "sloop," she is actually larger than her original frigate build, and more powerfully armed with fewer but much more potent shell-firing guns. The sloop was launched on 26 August 1854 and commissioned on 28 July 1855 with Captain Charles H. Bell in command. She remained in service for close to a century before finally being retired in 1954
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Arius Didymus
Arius Didymus (Greek: Ἄρειος Δίδυμος Areios Didymos; fl. 1st century BC) of Alexandria, was a Stoic philosopher and teacher of Augustus. Fragments of his handbooks summarizing Stoic and Peripatetic doctrines are preserved by Stobaeus
Stobaeus
and Eusebius.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophy 3 Notes 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Arius was a citizen of Alexandria
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Four Causes
The "four causes" are the core elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought, whereby explanations of change or movement, considered as answers to the question "why?", are classified into four fundamental types. Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[1][2] While there are cases where identifying a "cause" is difficult, or in which "causes" might merge, Aristotle
Aristotle
was convinced that his four "causes" provided an analytical scheme of general applicability.[3] Aitia, from Greek αἰτία, was the word that Aristotle
Aristotle
used to refer to the causal explanation that has traditionally been translated as "cause", but this specialized, technical, philosophical usage of the word "cause" does not correspond to its most usual uses in everyday language
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Formal Cause
The "four causes" are the core elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought, whereby explanations of change or movement, considered as answers to the question "why?", are classified into four fundamental types. Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[1][2] While there are cases where identifying a "cause" is difficult, or in which "causes" might merge, Aristotle
Aristotle
was convinced that his four "causes" provided an analytical scheme of general applicability.[3] Aitia, from Greek αἰτία, was the word that Aristotle
Aristotle
used to refer to the causal explanation that has traditionally been translated as "cause", but this specialized, technical, philosophical usage of the word "cause" does not correspond to its most usual uses in everyday language
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Material Cause
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[1][2] While there are cases where identifying a "cause" is difficult, or in which "causes" might merge, Aristotle
Aristotle
was convinced that his four "causes" provided an analytical scheme of general applicability.[3] Aitia, from Greek αἰτία, was the word that Aristotle
Aristotle
used to refer to the causal explanation that has traditionally been translated as "cause", but this specialized, technical, philosophical usage of the word "cause" does not correspond to its most usual uses in everyday language
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Efficient Cause
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[1][2] While there are cases where identifying a "cause" is difficult, or in which "causes" might merge, Aristotle
Aristotle
was convinced that his four "causes" provided an analytical scheme of general applicability.[3] Aitia, from Greek αἰτία, was the word that Aristotle
Aristotle
used to refer to the causal explanation that has traditionally been translated as "cause", but this specialized, technical, philosophical usage of the word "cause" does not correspond to its most usual uses in everyday language
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Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth
de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (Hungarian: [ˈlɒjoʃ ˈkoʃut], Slovak: Ľudovít Košút, archaically English: Louis Kossuth) 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
during the revolution of 1848–49. With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary
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Indirect Proof
In logic, proof by contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition. It starts by assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows that such an assumption leads to a contradiction. Proof by contradiction is also known as indirect proof, apagogical argument, proof by assuming the opposite, and reductio ad impossibilem. It is a particular kind of the more general form of argument known as reductio ad absurdum.[1][2] G. H. Hardy
G. H

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Vagueness
In analytic philosophy and linguistics, a concept may be considered vague if its extension is deemed lacking in clarity, if there is uncertainty about which objects belong to the concept or which exhibit characteristics that have this predicate (so-called "border-line cases"), or if the Sorites paradox
Sorites paradox
applies to the concept or predicate.[1] The concept of ambiguity is generally contrasted with vagueness. In ambiguity, specific and distinct interpretations are permitted (although some may not be immediately obvious), whereas with information that is vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity. In everyday speech, vagueness is an inevitable, often even desired, effect of language usage
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Perdurantism
Perdurantism or perdurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity.[1] The perdurantist view is that an individual has distinct temporal parts throughout its existence. Perdurantism is usually presented as the antipode to endurantism, the view that an individual is wholly present at every moment of its existence.[1] The use of "endure" and "perdure" to distinguish two ways in which an object can be thought to persist can be traced to David Kellogg Lewis (1986). However, contemporary debate has demonstrated the difficulties in defining perdurantism (and also endurantism). For instance, the work of Ted Sider (2001) has suggested that even enduring objects can have temporal parts, and it is more accurate to define perdurantism as being the claim that objects have a temporal part at every instant that they exist
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Ted Sider
Theodore "Ted" Sider is an American philosopher specializing in metaphysics and philosophy of language. He is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
at Rutgers University.Contents1 Education and career 2 Books 3 References 4 External linksEducation and career[edit] Since earning his Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1993, Sider has taught at the University of Rochester, Syracuse University, New York University, Cornell University, and Rutgers University from 2002-2007 and, again, since 2015
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