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Shavuot
Shavuot
Shavuot
( listen (help·info)) (or Shovuos ( listen (help·info)), in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (Hebrew: שבועות‎, lit. "Weeks"), known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek, is a Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
that occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan
Sivan
(may fall between 14 May–15 June).[1] Shavuot
Shavuot
has a double significance
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Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century CE.[1] In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi
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Jewish Peoplehood
Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood (Hebrew: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people.[1] The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people.[2] Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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Jew (word)
The English term Jew
Jew
originates in the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
word Yehudi, meaning "from the Tribe of Judah", "from the Kingdom of Judah", or "Jew". It passed into Greek as Ioudaios and Latin as Iudaeus, which evolved into the Old French
Old French
giu after the letter "d" was dropped
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Jewish Identity
Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.[1] Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline may refer to: Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline (software), a note-taking application Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edges of a person or object, without interior details or shading
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Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
(January 7, 1800 in Hanau, Germany – February 26, 1882 in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main) was a German painter who is often regarded as the first Jewish painter of the modern era. His work was informed by his cultural and religious roots at a time when many of his German Jewish contemporaries chose to convert to Christianity. Oppenheim is considered by the scholar Ismar Schorsch to be in sympathy with the ideals of the Wissenschaft des Judentums
Wissenschaft des Judentums
movement, because he remained "fair to the present" without denying his past.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Oppenheim was born to Orthodox Jewish parents at Hanau, Germany in 1800; he died at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main in 1882
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish 20.8% Arab 4.5% other[5]Religion (2016
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Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
Judaism
or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism
Judaism
or Qaraism), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/; Hebrew: יהדות קראית‬‬, Modern Yahadut Qara'it from, Tiberian Qārāʾîm, meaning "Readers")[a] is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh
Tanakh
alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud
Talmud
and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God
God
were recorded in the written Torah
Torah
without additional Oral Law or explanation
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Orach Chayim
Orach Chayim (Hebrew: אורח חיים‎; manner of life) is a section of Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob ben Asher's compilation of Halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim. This section treats all aspects of Jewish law primarily pertinent to the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
(be it the daily, weekly, monthly, or annual calendar). Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Karo
Yosef Karo
modeled the framework of the Shulkhan Arukh
Shulkhan Arukh
(שולחן ערוך), his own compilation of practical Jewish law, after the Arba'ah Turim. Many later commentators used this framework, as well
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Synagogue
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/; from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly', Hebrew: בית כנסת‬ bet kenesset, 'house of assembly' or בית תפילה‬ bet tefila, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a large place for prayer (the main sanctuary), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah
Torah
study, called the בית מדרש‬ beth midrash "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh
Tanakh
(the entire Hebrew Bible, including the Torah) reading, study and assembly; however, a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews
Jews
(a minyan) assemble
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Dairy
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm (mixed farm) that is concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States, an entire dairy farm is commonly called a "dairy". The building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is often called a "milking parlor" or "parlor". The farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house". Milk
Milk
is then hauled (usually by truck) to a "dairy plant" = also referred to as a "dairy" - where raw milk is further processed[by whom?] and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products
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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism. Central authority in Judaism
Judaism
is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings, laws, and traditions. The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism
Judaism
affirms the existence and uniqueness of God
God
and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews
Jews
or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‬, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‬ Y'hudey Ashkenaz),[18] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.[19] The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish
Yiddish
(a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently
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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word mitzvah (/ˈmɪtsvə/;[1] meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‬, [mit͡sˈva], Biblical: miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת‬ mitzvot [mit͡sˈvot], Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה‬ ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah
Torah
at biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments. The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or halakha. The opinions of the Talmudic rabbis are divided between those who seek the purpose of the mitzvot and those who do not question them
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Who Is A Jew?
"Who is a Jew?" (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי‎ pronounced [ˈmihu jehuˈdi]) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish
Jewish
self-identification. The question is based on ideas about Jewish
Jewish
personhood, which have cultural, ethnic, religious, political, genealogical, and personal dimensions. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
follow the Halakha, deeming a person to be Jewish
Jewish
if their mother is Jewish
Jewish
or they underwent a proper conversion. Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
accept both matrilineal and patrilineal descent. Karaite Judaism
Judaism
predominantly follows patrilineal descent. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is also commonly defined through ethnicity
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