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Shan Ruling House
SAOPHA, SAO PHA, CHAOFA, JAOFA, SAWBWA, or SAW-BWA (စော်ဘွား, pronounced ; Shan : ၸဝ်ႈၾႃႉ, literally meaning "lord of the heavens" or "lord of the sky" ) was a royal title used by the hereditary rulers of the semi-independent Shan States (Mong , Shan : မိူင်း, pronounced ) in what today is Eastern Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma). It may also be used for rulers of similar Tai/Dai states in neighbouring countries, notably including China's Yunnan
Yunnan
Province. Chao Fa (Thai : เจ้าฟ้า) is the Thai equivalent. Chao means "master" or "lord", and Fa means "sky" or "heaven". According to local chronicles, some dynasties of saophas date from as early as the 2nd century BCE; however, the earlier sections of these chronicles are generally agreed to be legendary
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Hsatung
HSATUNG (also known as HSAHTUNG or THATON) was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. Hsatung was a tributary of Burma
Burma
until 1887, when the Shan states submitted to British rule after the fall of the Konbaung dynasty
Konbaung dynasty
. The capital was formerly Laip but then was moved to Hsihseng, Nam Pawn valley, about 70 km south of Hopong. It became a part of the unified Shan State
Shan State
within Burma
Burma
in 1947. Sao Aung Myint, the last real myoza of Hsatung, died in the 1940s. His son abdicated and surrendered his powers to the Burmese government on 29 April 1959. The current population consists mostly of Taungu, with the Shan being a minority ethnic group
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Hopong State
HOPONG (Burmese : HOPON) was a Shan state in the Central Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
in what is today Burma . REFERENCES * Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010. * "WHKMLA : History of the Shan States". 18 May 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010
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Laihka State
LAIHKA STATE (Burmese : Legya) was a state in the central division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
of Burma
Burma
, with an area of 3711 km². The general character of the state was hilly and broken, with a mean altitude of a little under 3000 ft. The main rivers were the Nam Teng , an important tributary of the Salween
Salween
, and the Nam Pawn . Laihka, located in the plain of the Nam Teng, was the capital where the saopha had his palace (haw). The town of Panglong , where the Panglong Agreement took place, is located close to Laihka. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 1.1.1 Myosas * 1.1.2 Saohpa * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORYTraditional legends talk about a predecessor kingdom in the area named Hansavadi. Laihka State
Laihka State
was founded in 1505 as a state subordinated to Hsenwi State
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Lawksawk State
LAWKSAWK (Yatsawk) was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. It was located north of Myelat and belonged to the Central Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
. Its capital was Lawksawk
Lawksawk
town. The state included 397 villages and the population was mostly Shan , but there were also Danu , Pa-O and Palaung people in the area. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers (title Saopha) * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORY Lawksawk
Lawksawk
State was founded in 1630. According to tradition a predecessor state named Rathawadi had existed previously in the area. Between 1881 and 1886 the state was attacked and occupied by Yawnghwe
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Mongping State
MONGPING or MöNGPING (Burmese : Maingpyin) was small state of the Shan States
Shan States
in what is today Burma
Burma
. HISTORYLittle is known about the history of this state except that in 1842 it was merged with Lawksawk . It was located at the southeastern end of that state, separated from it by the Nam Et River. RULERS * 1835 - 1842 Hkam Hlaing * 1842 - .... Hkam KawREFERENCES * ^ Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010
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Mongsit
MONGSIT or MöNGSIT (also known as MAINGSEIK) was small state of the Shan States
Shan States
in what is today Burma
Burma
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 1.1.1 Myozas * 2 References HISTORYThe capital and residence of the Myoza was Mongsit
Mongsit
town, located in the northern part of the state and with 1,223 inhabitants according to the 1901 Census of India . The northern half of Mongsit
Mongsit
was irrigated by the Nam Teng and the southern by the Nam Pawn RULERSThe rulers of Mongsit
Mongsit
bore the title of Myoza . Myozas * 1816 - 18.. .... * 18.. - 1857 Sao Haw Pik * 1857 - 18.. Hkun Kyaw San * 18.
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Mongpawn
MONGPAWN or MöNGPAWN (Burmese : Maingpan) was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. The state was part of the Eastern Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
and was located south of Laihka State
Laihka State
in the valley of the Nam Pawn river. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 1.1.1 Myozas * 1.1.2 Saophas * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORYAccording to tradition a predecessor state in the area was named Rajjavadi. Möngpawn state was founded in 1816 under the overlordship of Mongnai State . Historically Mongpawn
Mongpawn
played an important part before the British annexation of Upper Burma
Burma
, at the time of the Burmese resistance movement 1885–95
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Kenghkam
KENGHKAM or KENG HKAM (also known as KYAINGKAN) was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. The capital was the town of Keng Hkam, located by the Nam Pang River . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 2 See also * 3 References HISTORY Kenghkam
Kenghkam
was initially a tributary of the Konbaung dynasty
Konbaung dynasty
. It was founded in 1811 and was located north of the sub-state of Kengtawng . The state was occupied by Mongnai State from 1870 to 1874 and again from 1878 to 1882, when it was annexed directly. RULERSThe rulers of the state bore the title Myoza . * 1811 - 1854 Bodaw Sao Hkam Yi * 1855 - 1864 Sao Hkun Mwe * 1864 - 1870 Naw Hkam Leng * 1870 - 1870 incorporated into Möngnai * 1874 - 1878 Sao Hkun Long * 1878 - 1882 incorporated into Möngnai * 1882 - c.1889 Sao Naw Süng * c.1889 - 1905 Hkun Un (b. 18.. - d
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Mongnawng State
MONGNAWNG (also known as MöNGNAWNG or MAINGNAUNG) was a large Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. Mongnawng was bound by Kengtung State in the east. The Nam Pang , an important river, crossed the state from north to south. Its capital was Mong Nawng
Mong Nawng
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 1.1.1 Myozas * 2 References HISTORYMongnawng became independent from Hsenwi in 1851 under the rulership of the myoza Heng Awn. It was a tributary of the Burmese Kingdom until 1887, when the Shan states
Shan states
submitted to British rule after the fall of the Konbaung dynasty
Konbaung dynasty
. RULERSThe rulers of Mongnawng bore the title of Myoza . Myozas * 1851 - 1866 Heng Awn (d. 1866) * 1866 - 1868 Hkun Hkang (d. 1868) * 1868 - 9 Aug 1906 Hkun Tun (b. 1858 - d. 1906) * 9 Aug 1906 - 19.
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Mongnai State
MONGNAI, also known as MöNGNAI, MONE or MONè, was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. It belonged to the Eastern Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
. Its capital was Mongnai town. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers (title Myoza) * 1.2 Rulers (title Saopha) * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORYMöngnai state was founded before 1800. According to tradition a predecessor state named Saturambha had existed previously in the area. Mongnai included the substates of Kengtawng and Kenghkam
Kenghkam
. The latter was annexed in 1882. RULERS (TITLE MYOZA) * c.1802 - 1848 Maung Shwe Paw * 1848 - 1850 Maung Yit * 1850 - 1851 U Po Ka * 1852 U Shwe KyuRULERS (TITLE SAOPHA)Ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunthiri Pawara Thudamaraza. * 1852 - 1875 Hkun Nu Nom * 1875 - 1882 Hkun Kyi (1st time) (b. 1847 - d
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Mongpan State
MONGPAN or MöNGPAN was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. It belonged to the Eastern Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
. The town of Mong Pan was formerly the residence of the Sawbwa
Sawbwa
of Mongpan State. The capital is in the middle of a fertile plain. Most of the other areas of the state are mountainous, rich in teak forests. Loi Hkilek , a 2,133 high mountain is located in Mongkyawt
Mongkyawt
District. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Rulers * 1.1.1 Myozas * 1.1.2 Saophas * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYAccording to legend there had been a predecessor state. Mongpan state was founded in 1637, but little is known of the history of the state before the times of British Burma
Burma

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Mongpai
MONGPAI was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. It belonged to the Central Division of the Southern Shan States
Shan States
. REFERENCES * ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 406. * Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010. * "WHKMLA : History of the Shan States". 18 May 2010
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Namhkok
NAMHKOK (also known as NANKOK) was a Shan state in what is today Burma
Burma
. REFERENCES * Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010. * "WHKMLA : History of the Shan States". 18 May 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010. * "The Imperial Gazetteer of India". Digital South Asia Library, University of Chicago
University of Chicago
. Retrieved 21 December 2010
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Kyong
KYONG (also known as KYON) was a Shan state in the Myelat region of what is today Burma
Burma
. RULERSThe title of Kyong's rulers was Ngwegunhmu. * .... - .... Maung Aung Hla * .... - 1867 Maung San Nyun * 1867 - .... Maung Po (b. 1841 - d. ....) * c.1910 Maung KaingREFERENCES * ^ "WHKMLA : History of the Shan States". 18 May 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010. * ^ Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010
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Kyawkku State
KYAWKKU (also known as KYAWKKU HSIWAN or KYAKKU) was a Shan state in the Myelat region of what is today Burma
Burma
. Its capital was the village of Kyawkku (Myinkyado) which had 344 inhabitants in 1901. HISTORY Kyawkku was founded around 1600 CE. It was a tributary of Burma
Burma
until 1887, when the Shan states
Shan states
submitted to British rule after the fall of the Konbaung dynasty
Konbaung dynasty
. The state was merged with Poila in 1922. RULERSThe title of Kyawkku's rulers was Ngwegunhmu . * .... - .... Nga San Bon * .... - .... Nga San Mya * ...
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