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Shamanism
Shamanism
Shamanism
is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.[1] A shaman (/ˈʃɑːmən/ SHAH-men) is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual, and practices divination and healing.[2] The word "shaman" probably originates from the Tungusic E
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Émile Durkheim
David Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
(French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm];[1] April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.[2][3] Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society
The Division of Labour in Society
(1893)
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Sacred–profane Dichotomy
The sacred–profane dichotomy is an idea posited by French sociologist Émile Durkheim, who considered it to be the central characteristic of religion: "religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden."[1] In Durkheim's theory, the sacred represented the interests of the group, especially unity, which were embodied in sacred group symbols, or totems. The profane, on the other hand, involved mundane individual concerns. Durkheim explicitly stated that the sacred–profane dichotomy was not equivalent to good/evil
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Mary Douglas
Dame Mary Douglas, DBE, FBA (25 March 1921 – 16 May 2007) was a British anthropologist, known for her writings on human culture and symbolism, whose area of speciality was social anthropology. Douglas was considered a follower of Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
and a proponent of structuralist analysis, with a strong interest in comparative religion.Contents1 Biography 2 Contributions to anthropology 3 Works 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksBiography[edit] She was born as Margaret Mary Tew in San Remo, Italy, to Gilbert and Phyllis (née Twomey) Tew. Her father was in the British colonial service. Her mother was a devout Roman Catholic, and Mary and her younger sister, Patricia, were raised in that faith
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Joseph Campbell
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American mythologist who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work covers many aspects of the human experience. Campbell's magnum opus is his book The Hero
Hero
with a Thousand Faces (1949), in which he discusses his theory of the journey of the archetypal hero found in world mythologies. Since the book's publication, Campbell's theory has been consciously applied by a wide variety of modern writers and artists
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Akbar S. Ahmed
Akbar Salahuddin Ahmed, (born. January 15, 1943) also known as Akbar Ahmed, is an American-Pakistani academic, author, poet, playwright, filmmaker and former diplomat.[2][3] He currently holds the Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies and is Professor of International Relations at the American University
American University
in Washington, D.C.[2][4][3] A former Pakistani High Commissioner to the UK and Ireland, Ahmed was a member of the Civil Service of Pakistan
Civil Service of Pakistan
and served as Political Agent in South Waziristan Agency
South Waziristan Agency
and Commissioner in Baluchistan.[5][6][2] He also served as the Iqbal Fellow (Chair of Pakistan
Pakistan
Studies) at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
as well as holding teaching positions at Harvard, Princeton, and the U.S
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Augustin Calmet
Abbot
Abbot
and exegete Historian; Scholar; Theologian; Philosopher, Occultist; TranslatorAntoine Augustin Calmet, O.S.B. (26 February 1672 – 25 October 1757), a French Benedictine
Benedictine
monk, was born at Ménil-la-Horgne, then in the Duchy of Bar, part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(now the French department of Meuse, located in the region of Lorraine). Calmet was a pious monk as well as a learned man, and one of the most distinguished members of the Congregation of St. Vanne. In recognition of these qualities he was elected prior of Lay-Saint-Christophe
Lay-Saint-Christophe
in 1715, Abbot
Abbot
of St-Léopold at Nancy in 1718, and of Senones Abbey
Senones Abbey
in 1729. He was twice entrusted with the office of Abbot
Abbot
General of the congregation
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Archaeology Of Religion And Ritual
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.Contents1 Definitions 2 Theory2.1 Anthropology of religion 2.2 Religion, identity, and practice 2.3 Religion, power, and inequality 2.4 Historical method and theory3 Material correlates 4 Examples of research by area4.1 Africa 4.2 Americas 4.3 Asia 4.4 Europe 4.5 Australia/South Pacific5 See also5.1 Modern religious use of archaeological sites 5.2 Biblical archaeology6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDefinitions[edit]
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The Elementary Forms Of The Religious Life
The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (French: Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse), published by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
in 1912, is a book that analyzes religion as a social phenomenon. Durkheim attributes the development of religion to the emotional security attained through communal living. His study of totemic societies in Australia led to a conclusion that the animal or plant that each clan worshipped as a sacred power was in fact that society itself.[1]:201 Halfway through the text, Durkheim inquisites that, "So if [the totem animal] is at once the symbol of the god and of the society, is that not because the god and the society are only one."[1]:206 According to Durkheim, early humans associated such feelings not only with one another, but as well with objects in their environment
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Ghost Dance
The Ghost
Ghost
Dance (Caddo: Nanissáanah,[1] also called the Ghost
Ghost
Dance of 1890) was a new religious movement incorporated into numerous American Indian belief systems. According to the teachings of the Northern Paiute
Northern Paiute
spiritual leader Wovoka
Wovoka
(renamed Jack Wilson), proper practice of the dance would reunite the living with spirits of the dead, bring the spirits of the dead to fight on their behalf, make the white colonists leave, and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to Native American peoples throughout the region.[2] The basis for the Ghost
Ghost
Dance, the circle dance, is a traditional form that has been used by many Native American peoples since prehistoric times, but this new ceremony was first practiced among the Nevada Paiute in 1889
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Enchanted Feminism
Enchanted Feminism: The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco
San Francisco
is an anthropological study of the Reclaiming Wiccan community of San Francisco
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Coral Gardens And Their Magic
Coral Gardens and Their Magic, properly Coral Gardens and Their Magic: A Study of the Methods of Tilling the Soil and of Agricultural Rites in the Trobriand Islands, is the final book in anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski's ethnographic trilogy on the lives of the Trobriand Islanders. It concentrates on the cultivation practices the Trobriand Islanders
Trobriand Islanders
used to grow yams, taro, bananas and palms.[1] It describes the gardens in which the Trobrianders grew food as more than merely utilitarian spaces, even as works of art.[2] In 1988 Alfred Gell called the book "still the best account of any primitive technological-cum-magical system, and unlikely ever to be superseded in this respect".[3] The book has been described as Malinowski's magnum opus.[4]Contents1 Overview 2 Reception 3 Release details 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] The book consists of seven parts divided over two volumes
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Shaman (other)
A shaman is a practitioner of shamanism. Shaman or Shamans may also refer to: Music[edit]Korpiklaani, a Finnish folk metal band formerly known as Shaman Shaman (band), a Brazilian power metal band Shaman (album), a 2002 album by musician Carlos Santana Shamans (album), a 2002 album by musician Aziza Mustafa Zadeh The Shamen, a British dance bandRole-playing game[edit]Shaman (accessory), an accessory sourcebook for the role-playing game Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, 2nd Edition Shaman (character class), a character class in role-playing games Shaman (Dungeons & Dragons), a character class in the role-playing game Dungeons & DragonsOther uses[edit]Shaman (comics), a Marvel Comics character Shaman (novel), a 2013 novel by Kim Stanley Robinson Shaman, Iran, a village in Semnan Province, Iran Aerodyne Shaman, a series of French single-place paragliders Avtoros Shaman, a 8x8 all-terrain vehicle with inverted wheelsThis disambiguation page
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Talal Asad
Talal Asad (born 1932) is an anthropologist at the CUNY Graduate Center.[1] Asad has made important theoretical contributions to postcolonialism, Christianity, Islam, and ritual studies and has recently called for, and initiated, an anthropology of secularism. Using a genealogical method developed by Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
and made prominent by Michel Foucault, Asad "complicates terms of comparison that many anthropologists, theologians, philosophers, and political scientists receive as the unexamined background of thinking, judgment, and action as such
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Fetishism
A fetish (derived from the French fétiche; which comes from the Portuguese feitiço; and this in turn from Latin
Latin
facticius, "artificial" and facere, "to make") is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular, a human-made object that has power over others
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