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Sexual Selection
Sexual selection
Sexual selection
is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection). These two forms of selection mean that some individuals have better reproductive success than others within a population, either from being more attractive or preferring more attractive partners to produce offspring.[1][2] For instance in the breeding season sexual selection in frogs occurs with the males first gathering at the water's edge and making their mating calls: croaking. The females then arrive and choose the males with the deepest croaks and best territories. Generalizing, males benefit from frequent mating and monopolizing access to a group of fertile females
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Sex Selection
Sex selection
Sex selection
is the attempt to control the sex of the offspring to achieve a desired sex. It can be accomplished in several ways, both pre- and post-implantation of an embryo, as well as at childbirth. It has been marketed under the title family balancing. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the reasons behind sex selection are due to three factors and provide an understanding for sex ratio imbalances as well as to project future trends
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Aesthetic
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
(/ɛsˈθɛtɪks, iːs-/; also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.[1][2] In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[3] Aesthetics
Aesthetics
studies how artists imagine, create and perform works of art; how people use, enjoy, and criticize art; and what happens in their minds when they look at paintings, listen to music, or read poetry, and understand what they see and hear. It also studies how they feel about art-- why they like some works and not others, and how art can affect their moods, beliefs, and attitude toward life
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Fisherian Runaway
Fisherian runaway
Fisherian runaway
or runaway selection is a sexual selection mechanism proposed by the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
in the early 20th century, to account for the evolution of exaggerated male ornamentation by persistent, directional female choice.[1][2][3] An example is the colourful and elaborate peacock plumage compared to the relatively subdued peahen plumage; the costly ornaments, notably the bird's extremely long tail, appear to be incompatible with natural selection. Fisherian runaway
Fisherian runaway
can be postulated to include sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits such as behaviour expressed by either sex. Extreme and apparently maladaptive sexual dimorphism represented a paradox for evolutionary biologists from Charles Darwin's time up to the modern synthesis
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Sex Ratio
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1. This tendency is explained by Fisher's principle.[1] For various reasons, however, many species deviate from anything like an even sex ratio, either periodically or permanently. Examples include parthenogenic species, periodically mating organisms such as aphids, some eusocial wasps such as Polistes fuscatus
Polistes fuscatus
and Polistes exclamans, bees, ants, and termites.[2] The human sex ratio is of particular interest to anthropologists and demographers. In human societies, however, sex ratios at birth may be considerably skewed by factors such as the age of mother at birth,[3] and by sex-selective abortion and infanticide
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Fungi
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes. Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the Archaea and bacteria. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex, in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis.[1] A complete lack of sexual reproduction is relatively rare among multicellular organisms, particularly animals. It is not entirely understood why the ability to reproduce sexually is so common among them
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The Origin Of Species
On the Origin of Species
Species
(or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),[3] published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.[4] Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.[5] Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology
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Camouflage
Camouflage
Camouflage
is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, and the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid
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Beetle
See subgroups of the order ColeopteraBeetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings is hardened into wing-cases, elytra, distinguishing them from most other insects. The Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms; new species are discovered frequently. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(weevils) with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. They are found in almost every habitat except the sea and the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Deer
Deer
Deer
(singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the fallow deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer and the moose. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer), grow and shed new antlers each year
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Statistician
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors. It is common to combine statistical knowledge with expertise in other subjects, and statisticians may work as employees or as statistical consultants.[1][2]Contents1 Nature of the work 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksNature of the work[edit] According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2014, 26,970 jobs were classified as statistician in the United States
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Evolutionary Biologist
Evolutionary biology
Evolutionary biology
is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation. The discipline emerged through what Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
called the modern synthesis (of the 1930s) of understanding from several previously unrelated fields of biological research, including genetics, ecology, systematics and paleontology. Current research has widened to cover the genetic architecture of adaptation, molecular evolution, and the different forces that contribute to evolution including sexual selection, genetic drift and biogeography
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The Genetical Theory Of Natural Selection
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection,[1] with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism"[2] and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.[3] First published in 1930 by The Clarendon Press, it is one of the most important books of the modern synthesis,[4] and helped define population genetics. It is commonly cited in biology books, outlining many concepts that are still considered important such as Fisherian runaway, Fisher's principle, reproductive value, Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, Fisher's geometric model, the sexy son hypothesis, mimicry and the evolution of dominance
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