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Severan Bridge
The Severan Bridge
Severan Bridge
(also known as Chabinas Bridge or Cendere Bridge or Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
Bridge; Turkish: Cendere Köprüsü) is a late Roman bridge located near the ancient city of Arsameia
Arsameia
(today Eskikale), 55 km (34 mi) north east of Adıyaman
Adıyaman
in southeastern Turkey. It spans the Cendere Çayı (Chabinas Creek), a tributary of Kâhta Creek, on provincial road 02-03 from Kâhta to Sincik
Sincik
in Adıyaman
Adıyaman
Province. This bridge was described and pictured in 1883 by archeologists Osman Hamdi Bey and Osgan Efendi.[2]Contents1 Description and history 2 See also 3 Notes 4 Further reading 5 External linksDescription and history[edit] The bridge is constructed as a simple, unadorned, single majestic arch on two rocks at the narrowest point of the creek
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Lucius Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus (/səˈvɪərəs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus;[4] 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorum—the customary succession of offices—under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.[5] After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the Roman generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus
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National Park
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.[1] An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed previously, the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872.[2] Although Yellowstone was not officially termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice[3] and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world
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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
(/səˈvɪərəs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus;[4] 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorum—the customary succession of offices—under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax
Pertinax
in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.[5] After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the Roman generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus
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Caracalla
Caracalla
Caracalla
(/ˌkærəˈkælə/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Severus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was a Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and Julia Domna. Caracalla
Caracalla
reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. Caracalla
Caracalla
then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year
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Julia Domna
Julia
Julia
is usually a woman's given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio and Julius. Julius
Julius
was a Roman family, derived from a founder Julus, the son of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Creusa in Roman mythology, although the name's etymology may possibly derive from Greek ἴουλος (ioulos) "downy-[haired, bearded]"[citation needed] or alternatively from the name of the Roman god Jupiter.[citation needed] Like its male counterpart, the given name Julia
Julia
had been in use throughout Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(e.g. Julia
Julia
of Corsica) but became rare during the Middle Ages, and was revived only with the Italian Renaissance. It became common in the English-speaking world only in the 18th century
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Inscription
Epigraphy
Epigraphy
is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription
Behistun inscription
is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Damnatio Memoriae
Damnatio memoriae
Damnatio memoriae
is a modern Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory", meaning that a person must not be remembered. It was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
on traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman State. The intent was to erase the malefactor from history.Contents1 Overview1.1 Etymology 1.2 Practice2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] Damnatio memoriae, or oblivion, as a punishment was originally created by the peoples of Ephesus
Ephesus
after Herostratus
Herostratus
set fire to the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of antiquity. The Romans, who viewed it as a punishment worse than death, adopted this practice
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Nemrud Dagi
Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut Dağı; Kurdish: Çiyayê Nemrûdê‎; Armenian: Նեմրութ լեռ) is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. The name is a relatively modern one, dating back to the Middle Ages. In Armenian legend, Hayk defeated the Biblical king Nimrod (equated with Bel) and buried him in these mountains
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Kommagene
The Kingdom of Commagene (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Armenian: Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն)[needs IPA] was an ancient Armenian kingdom[1][2][3][4] [5] of the Hellenistic period,[6] located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
(CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin
Latin
inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life and history. The Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements. CIL also refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin
Latin
inscriptions
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