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Serdar-ı Azam
The GRAND VIZIER OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (Turkish : Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish : صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire , with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution . He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council ; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte . During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Speaker (politics)
The SPEAKER of a deliberative assembly , especially a legislative body , is its presiding officer (chair). The title was first used in 1399 in England. CONTENTS* 1 Usage * 1.1 Australia
Australia
* 1.2 Italy
Italy
* 1.3 Canada
Canada
* 1.4 Singapore
Singapore
* 1.5 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 1.6 United States
United States
* 1.6.1 Federal * 1.6.2 States * 2 Similar posts * 3 List of current speakers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading USAGE Parliament of Albania The speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, and the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the chamber or house
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Prime Minister Of Turkey
The PRIME MINISTER OF TURKEY (Turkish : Başbakan) is the head of government of Turkey
Turkey
. The prime minister is the leader of a political coalition in the Turkish parliament (Meclis) and the leader of the cabinet. The current holder of the position is Binali Yıldırım
Binali Yıldırım
of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), who took office on 24 May 2016. The vote to transform the nation to a presidential system in the constitutional referendum of 2017 means the office will be abolished after the next general elections. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 List of Prime Ministers * 3 Living former Prime Ministers * 4 Longest track records * 5 Timeline * 6 See also * 7 External links HISTORYIn the Ottoman Empire, the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan held the title of Grand Vizier (Turkish : Sadrazam)
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Alaeddin Pasha (vizier)
ALAEDDIN PASHA was the first Ottoman grand vizier . His father's name was Kemalettin, and thus he was usually called Hacı Kemalettin oğlu Alaeddin Pasha
Pasha
or Alaeddin bin Hacı Kemalletin, meaning "son of Hacı Kemalettin's." He was probably from the town of Cendere , from where the famous Çandarlı family also originated. He was a fakih (expert in Islamic law). He was appointed as the vizier during the last years of Osman I
Osman I
's reign (probably in 1320). He continued during Orhan\'s Bey's reign. Since there was only one vizier in the divan during the early years of the Ottoman beylik, his title was not actually grand vizier, but his post was equivalent to the post of the later grand viziers. Because of this, he is known as the first grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire. He founded the first standing army for the Ottoman sultan, which would later on become the Janissaries
Janissaries

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Cendere, Nallıhan
CENDERE (historically known as ÇANDAR) is a village in the District of Nallıhan , Ankara Province
Ankara Province
, Turkey
Turkey
. Despite its small size today, during the early days of the Ottoman Empire , Cendere (then named Çandar) was an important town, and the politically powerful and wealthy Çandarlı family originated from the village, as did the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, Alaeddin Pasha . SEE ALSO * Çandarlı family REFERENCES * ^ "Population of city, towns and villages - 2011". Turkish Statistical Institute . Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012
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Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
The SECOND CONSTITUTIONAL ERA (Ottoman Turkish : ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى‎; Turkish : İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the restoration of the constitution of 1876 . The parliament and the constitution of First Constitutional Era (1876–1878) had been suspended by Abdul Hamid in 1878 after only two years of functioning
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First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
The FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL ERA (Ottoman Turkish : مشروطيت‎; Turkish : Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning " Basic Law " or "Fundamental Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans
Young Ottomans
, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878. These Young Ottomans
Young Ottomans
were dissatisfied by the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
and instead pushed for a constitutional government similar to that in Europe. The constitutional period started with the dethroning of Sultan Abdülaziz. Abdulhamid II took his place as Sultan. The era ended with the suspension of the Ottoman parliament and the constitution by sultan Abdülhamid II , with which he restored his own absolute monarchy
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Sublime Porte
The SUBLIME PORTE, also known as the OTTOMAN PORTE or HIGH PORTE (Ottoman Turkish : باب عالی‎ Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from Arabic : باب‎‎, bāb "gate" and Arabic : عالي‎‎, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Diplomacy
Diplomacy
* 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe naming has its origins in the old Oriental practice, according to which the ruler announced his official decisions and judgements at the gate of his palace. This was the practice in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and it was adopted also by Ottoman Turk sultans since Orhan I , and therefore the palace of the sultan, or the gate leading to it, became known as the "High Gate". This name referred first to a palace in Bursa
Bursa
, Turkey
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Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha
ÇANDARLı KARA HALIL HAYREDDIN PASHA, also known as ÇANDARLı HALIL PASHA THE ELDER, was the first Grand Vizier of Murad I
Murad I
's reign. He was also technically the first in Ottoman history who held the title "Grand Vizier " (although several before him held equivalent but differently named offices), the first who had a military background (his predecessors under Orhan I came from the class of learned men, the "ilmiye"), and the first member of the illustrious Çandarlı family to hold high office. His family was to mark the rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between 1360 and 1450. He rose to the rank of grand vizier from the position of the chief military judge (kazasker ) in September 1364 and held this top seat after the sultan until his death on January 22, 1387
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster system
, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Tanzimat
The TANZIMâT (Ottoman Turkish : تنظيمات, Tanẓīmāt), literally meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(see Nizam ), was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era
First Constitutional Era
in 1876. It was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism
Ottomanism
among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire and attempted to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. The reforms sought to emancipate the empire's non-Muslim subjects and more thoroughly integrate non-Turks into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the empire
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Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha
MAHMUDOğLU NIZAMüDDIN AHMED PASHA was an Ottoman statesman. He was second Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1331 to 1348. SEE ALSO * List of Ottoman Grand Viziers
List of Ottoman Grand Viziers
REFERENCES * ^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971, p. 8
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Hacı Pasha
HACı PASHA was an Ottoman statesman. He was third Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1348 to 1349. Little else is known about him other than his role as grand vizier
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Osmancık
OSMANCıK is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea
Black Sea
region of Turkey
Turkey
, located 59 km north of the city of Çorum
Çorum
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 List of Neighborhoods * 3 History * 4 Population * 5 Notable natives * 6 Places of interest * 7 External links * 8 References GEOGRAPHYLocated on an important crossing of the River Kızılırmak on the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
to the orient, Osmancık
Osmancık
has long had a strategic value, and is still today a popular stopping-place on the road from Istanbul
Istanbul
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
city of Samsun
Samsun
and further east
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Imamzade Halil Pasha
IMAMZADE HALIL PASHA (also known as OSMANCıKLı IMAMZADE HALIL PASHA) was an Ottoman statesman. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1406 to 1413. His son, Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha
Pasha
, also served as grand vizier. REFERENCES * ^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971, p. 9
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