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Serdar-ı Azam
The Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.Contents1 History 2 List of Grand Viziers 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesHistory[edit] During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used
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Grand Vizier
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier
Vizier
(Turkish: Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.[1] He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "Kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under the dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.Contents1 Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire 2 Grand Viziers of the Mughal Empire 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesGrand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: List of Ottoman Grand ViziersSeal of the Ottoman Grand VizierThe term “vizier” was originally a denomination used by the Abbasid Dynasty in the 8th century AD
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Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha
Mahmudoğlu Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha
Pasha
was an Ottoman statesman. He was second Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1331 to 1348.[1] See also[edit]List of Ottoman Grand ViziersReferences[edit]^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971, p. 8
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Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha
Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha, also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha
Pasha
the Elder, was the first Grand Vizier of Murad I's reign. He was also technically the first in Ottoman history who held the title "Grand Vizier" (although several before him held equivalent but differently named offices), the first who had a military background (his predecessors under Orhan I
Orhan I
came from the class of learned men, the "ilmiye"), and the first member of the illustrious Çandarlı family to hold high office. His family was to mark the rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between 1360 and 1450.[1] He rose to the rank of grand vizier from the position of the chief military judge (kazasker) in September 1364 and held this top seat after the sultan until his death on January 22, 1387
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Prime Minister
A prime minister, also known as a premier, is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Tanzimat
The Tanzimât (Turkish: [tɑnziˈmɑːt]; Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات‎, translit. Tanẓīmāt, lit. 'reorganization') was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.[1] The Tanzimat
Tanzimat
era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire.[2] It was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers
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First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
The First Constitutional Era
First Constitutional Era
(Ottoman Turkish: مشروطيت‎; Turkish: Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî
Kanûn-ı Esâsî
(meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878. These Young Ottomans
Young Ottomans
were dissatisfied by the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
and instead pushed for a constitutional government similar to that in Europe.[1] The constitutional period started with the dethroning of Sultan Abdülaziz
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Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
The Second Constitutional Era
Second Constitutional Era
(Ottoman Turkish: ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى‎; Turkish: İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the restoration of the constitution of 1876. The parliament and the constitution of the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878) had been suspended by Abdul Hamid in 1878 after only two years of functioning
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Speaker (politics)
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.Contents1 Usage1.1 Australia 1.2 Italy 1.3 Canada 1.4 Singapore 1.5 United Kingdom 1.6 United States1.6.1 Federal 1.6.2 States2 Similar posts 3 List of current speakers 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingUsage[edit]Parliament of AlbaniaThe speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, and the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the chamber or house.[1] The speaker often also represents the body in person, as the voice of the body in ceremonial and some other situations
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Prime Minister Of Turkey
The Prime Minister of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Başbakan) is the head of government of Turkey. The prime minister is the leader of a political coalition in the Turkish parliament (Meclis) and the leader of the cabinet. The current holder of the position is Binali Yıldırım
Binali Yıldırım
of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), who took office on 24 May 2016. The vote to transform the nation to a presidential system in the constitutional referendum of 2017 means the office will be abolished after the next general election.Contents1 History 2 List of Prime Ministers 3 Living former Prime Ministers 4 Longest track records 5 Timeline 6 See also 7 External linksHistory[edit] In the Ottoman Empire, the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan
Ottoman sultan
held the title of Grand Vizier (Turkish: Sadrazam)
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Alaeddin Pasha (vizier)
Alaeddin Pasha
Pasha
was the first Ottoman grand vizier. His father's name was Kemalettin, and thus he was usually called Hacı Kemalettin oğlu Alaeddin Pasha
Pasha
or Alaeddin bin Hacı Kemalletin, meaning "son of Hacı Kemalettin's." He was probably from the town of Cendere, from where the famous Çandarlı family also originated.[1] He was a fakih (expert in Islamic law). He was appointed as the vizier during the last years of Osman I's reign (probably in 1320). He continued during Orhan's Bey's reign. Since there was only one vizier in the divan during the early years of the Ottoman beylik, his title was not actually grand vizier, but his post was equivalent to the post of the later grand viziers. Because of this, he is known as the first grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire. He founded the first standing army for the Ottoman sultan, which would later on become the Janissaries
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Cendere, Nallıhan
Cendere (historically known as Çandar) is a village in the District of Nallıhan, Ankara Province, Turkey.[1] Despite its small size today, during the early days of the Ottoman Empire, Cendere (then named Çandar) was an important town, and the politically powerful and wealthy Çandarlı family originated from the village, as did the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, Alaeddin Pasha. See also[edit]Çandarlı familyReferences[edit]^ "Population of city, towns and villages - 2011". Turkish Statistical Institute. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012. Coordinates: 40°11′36″N 31°07′21″E / 40.1934°N 31.1226°E / 40.1934; 31.1226This geographical article about a location in Ankara Province, Turkey is a stub
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Hacı Pasha
Hacı Pasha
Pasha
was an Ottoman statesman
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Topkapı Palace
The Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
(Turkish: Topkapı Sarayı[2] or in Ottoman Turkish: طوپقپو سرايى‎, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı),[3] or the Seraglio,[4] is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans. Construction began in 1459, ordered by Mehmed the Conqueror, six years after the conquest of Constantinople. Topkapı was originally called the "New Palace" (Yeni Saray or Saray-ı Cedîd-i Âmire) to distinguish it from the Old Palace in Beyazıt Square. It was given the name Topkapı, meaning Cannon Gate, in the 19th century.[5] The complex was expanded over the centuries, with major renovations after the 1509 earthquake and the 1665 fire. The palace complex consists of four main courtyards and many smaller buildings
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Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha
Yusuf
Yusuf
(also transliterated as Jusuf, Yousof, Yossef, Yousaf, Youcef, Yousef, Youssef, Yousif, Youssif, Youssof, Youssouf, Yousuf, Yusef, Yuseff, Usef, Yusof, or Yussef, Arabic: يوسف‎ Yūsuf and Yūsif) is a male Aramaic
Aramaic
name, meaning "
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