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Senegambia
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union.Contents1 History 2 Problems with Senegambia's border 3 Birth of the Confederation 4 End of the Confederation 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] As a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English began in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centers
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Moussa Traoré
Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician who was President of Mali from 1968 to 1991. As a Lieutenant, he led the military ousting of President Modibo Keïta in 1968. Thereafter he served as head of state until March 1991, when he was overthrown by popular protests and a military coup. He was twice condemned to death in the 1990s, but eventually pardoned on both occasions and freed in 2002. He has since retired from political life.Contents1 Early life 2 Head of State, 1968–1991 3 Opposition and overthrow 4 Trials and pardons 5 References 6 Further readingEarly life[edit] Born in Kayes Region, Traoré studied at Kita and at the military academy in Fréjus, France. He returned to Mali in 1960, after its 1959 independence. He became second lieutenant in 1961, and lieutenant in 1963. He went to Tanganyika (which later together with Zanzibar formed the new state of Tanzania) as military instructor to its liberation movements
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Cap-Vert
Cap-Vert
Cap-Vert
or the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Peninsula
Peninsula
is a peninsula in Senegal, and the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland. Portuguese explorers called it Cabo Verde or "Green Cape", but it is not to be confused with the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
islands, which are some 560 kilometres (350 mi) further west. Dakar, the capital of Senegal, is located near the southern tip. Cap-Vert
Cap-Vert
is a rocky promontory extending west from the main sandy areas of Senegal. Cap-Vert
Cap-Vert
has an excellent harbor, facing Gorée Island. Formed by a combination of volcanic offshore islands and a land bridge produced by coastal currents, it projects into the Atlantic Ocean, bending back to the southeast at its tip
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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest citiesList1.São Paulo 2.Lima 3. Mexico
Mexico
City 4.New York City 5.Bogotá 6.Rio de Janeiro 7.Santiago 8.Los Angeles 9.Caracas 10.Buenos AiresCIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projectionThe Americas
Americas
(also collectively called America)[5][6][7] comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[8][9][10] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere[11][12][13][14][15][16] and comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas
Americas
is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St
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Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America
North America
founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States
United States
of America. The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country
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New France
New France
France
(French: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America
North America
during a period beginning with the exploration of the
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Sugar Plantations In The Caribbean
Sugar
Sugar
was the main crop produced on plantations throughout the Caribbean
Caribbean
through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Most islands were covered with sugar cane and mills for refining it. The main source of labor, until the abolition of the system, was enslaved Africans. These plantations produced 80 to 90 percent of the sugar consumed in Western Europe[1]Contents1 The sugar trade 2 Current status 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 ReferencesThe sugar trade[edit] Sugar
Sugar
was the most important crop throughout the Caribbean, although other crops such as coffee, indigo, and rice were also grown
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Seven Years' War
Anglo-Prusso-Portuguese coalition victoryTreaty of Saint Petersburg (1762) Treaty of Hamburg (1762) Treaty of Paris (1763) Treaty of Hubertusburg
Treaty of Hubertusburg
(1763)Territorial changes Status quo ante bellum in Europe. Transfer of colonial possessions between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal.France cedes its possessions east of the Mississippi River, Canada (except Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), the island of Grenada, and the Northern Circars
Northern Circars
in India
India
to Great Britain. France cedes Louisiana
Louisiana
and its territory west of the Mississippi River to Spain. Spain
Spain
cedes Florida to Great Britain. Four "neutral" Caribbean
Caribbean
islands divided between Britain (St. Vincent, Tobago, Dominica) and France (St
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Songhai Empire
The Songhai Empire
Empire
(also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel
Sahel
in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history. The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading ethnic group and ruling elite, the Songhai. Sonni Ali
Sonni Ali
established Gao
Gao
as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao
Gao
since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and Djenné, conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished
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Mali Empire
The Mali
Mali
Empire
Empire
(Manding: Nyeni[5] or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba,[1] sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita
Sundiata Keita
and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. The Manding languages
Manding languages
were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs.[6] Much of the recorded information about the Mali
Mali
Empire
Empire
comes from 14th century North African Arab
Arab
historian Ibn Khaldun, 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
and 16th century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus
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Crown Colony
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
overseas territories that are controlled by the UK government. As such they are examples of dependencies that are under direct colonial rule. Since 2002, crown colonies have been known officially as British Overseas Territories.[1] In such territories, residents do not elect members of the British parliament. A crown colony is usually administered by a governor who directly controls the executive and is appointed by "the Crown" – a term that in practice usually means the UK government, acting on behalf of the monarch
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American Revolutionary War
Allied victory:Peace of Paris British recognition of American independence End of the First British Empire British retention of Canada
Canada
and GibraltarTerritorial changesGreat Britain cedes to the United States
United States
the area east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and St
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