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Semiotics
Semiotics
Semiotics
(also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication. It is not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology, which is a subset of semiotics.[1][2] Semiotics includes the study of signs and sign processes, indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegory, metonymy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems. Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication.[3] Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however
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Confabulation
In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.[1] People who confabulate present incorrect memories ranging from "subtle alterations to bizarre fabrications",[2] and are generally very confident about their recollections, despite contradictory evidence.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Distinctions2 Signs and symptoms 3 Theories3.1 Neuropsychological theories 3.2 Self-identity theory 3.3 Temporality theory 3.4 Monitoring theory 3.5 Strategic retrieval account theory 3.6 Executive control theory 3.7 In the context of delusion theories 3.8 Fuzzy-trace theory 3.9 Epistemic
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Vladimir Toporov
Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow – 5 December 2005 in Moscow) was a leading Russian philologist associated with the Tartu- Moscow
Moscow
semiotic school. His wife was Tatyana Elizarenkova. Toporov authored more than 1500 works, including Akhmatova and Dante (1972), Towards the Reconstruction of the Indo-European Rite (1982), Aeneas: a Man of Destiny (1993), Myth. Rite. Symbol. Image (1995), Holiness and Saints in the Russian Spiritual Culture (1998), and Petersburg Text of Russian Literature (2003)
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Lexical (semiotics)
In linguistics content words are words that name objects of reality and their qualities. They signify actual living things (dog, cat, etc.), family members (mother, father, sister, etc.), natural phenomena (snow, Sun, etc.) common actions (do, make, come, eat, etc.), characteristics (young, cold, dark, etc.), etc. They consist mostly of nouns, lexical verbs and adjectives, but certain adverbs can also be content words. They contrast with function words, which are words that have very little substantive meaning and primarily denote grammatical relationships between content words, such as prepositions (in, out, under, etc.), pronouns (I, you, he, who, etc.), conjunctions (and, but, till, as, etc.), etc.[1] All words can be classified as either content or function words, although it is not always easy to make the distinction. With only around 150 function words, 99.9% of words in the English language are content words
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Michael Silverstein
Michael Silverstein (born 1945) is the Charles F. Grey Distinguished Service Professor of anthropology, linguistics, and psychology at the University of Chicago.[1] He is a theoretician of semiotics and linguistic anthropology. Over the course of his career he has drawn together research on linguistic pragmatics, sociolinguistics, language ideology, semiotic anthropology and grammatical theory into a comprehensive account of language in culture[citation needed]
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Gottlob Frege
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege
Gottlob Frege
(/ˈfreɪɡə/;[10] German: [ˈɡɔtloːp ˈfreːɡə]; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He is understood by many to be the father of analytic philosophy, concentrating on the philosophy of language and mathematics. Though largely ignored during his lifetime, Giuseppe Peano
Giuseppe Peano
(1858–1932) and Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) introduced his work to later generations of logicians and philosophers. His contributions include the development of modern logic in the Begriffsschrift
Begriffsschrift
and work in the foundations of mathematics. His book the Foundations of Arithmetic
Foundations of Arithmetic
is the seminal text of the logicist project, and is cited by Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
as where to pinpoint the linguistic turn
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Copenhagen–Tartu School
The Copenhagen–Tartu school of biosemiotics is a loose network of scholars working within the discipline of biosemiotics at the University of Tartu
University of Tartu
and the University of Copenhagen
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Roman Jakobson
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Russian: Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896[1] – July 18,[2] 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist. As a pioneer of the structural analysis of language, which became the dominant trend in linguistics during the first half of the 20th century, Jakobson was among the most influential linguists of the century. Influenced by the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, Jakobson developed, with Nikolai Trubetzkoy, techniques for the analysis of sound systems in languages, inaugurating the discipline of phonology. He went on to apply the same techniques of analysis to syntax and morphology, and controversially proposed that they be extended to semantics (the study of meaning in language)
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Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist)
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Russian: Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Other interests 4 Selected publications 5 References 6 External links 7 See alsoEarly life[edit] Vyacheslav Ivanov's father was Vsevolod Ivanov, one of the most prominent Soviet writers. His mother was an actress who worked in the theatre of Vsevolod Meyerhold
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Louis Hjelmslev
Louis Trolle Hjelmslev (Danish: [ˈjɛlˀmslew]; 3 October 1899, Copenhagen – 30 May 1965, Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
School of linguistics. Born into an academic family (his father was the mathematician Johannes Hjelmslev), Hjelmslev studied comparative linguistics in Copenhagen, Prague
Prague
and Paris
Paris
(with a.o. Antoine Meillet
Antoine Meillet
and Joseph Vendryes). In 1931, he founded the Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague. Together with Hans Jørgen Uldall he developed a structural theory of language which he called glossematics, which developed the semiotic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure
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Representation (arts)
Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else.[1] It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements.[1] Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations.[1]Bust of Aristotle, Greek philosopherFor many philosophers, both ancient and modern, man is regarded as the "representational animal" or animal symbolicum, the creature whose distinct character is the creation and the manipulation of signs – things that "stand for" or "take the place of" something else.[1] Representation has been associated with aesthetics (art) and semiotics (signs). Mitchell says "representation is an extremely elastic notion, which extends all the way from a stone representing a man to a novel representing the day in the life of several Dubliners".[1] The term 'representation' carries a range of meanings and interpretations
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Félix Guattari
Pierre- Félix Guattari
Félix Guattari
(French: [ɡwataʁi]  (listen) (help·info); April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist. He founded both schizoanalysis and ecosophy, and is best known for his intellectual collaborations with Gilles Deleuze, most notably Anti-Oedipus
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Semiosphere
Semiosphere is the sphere of semiosis in which sign processes operate in the set of all interconnected Umwelten. The concept was coined by Yuri Lotman
Yuri Lotman
in 1982 and is now applied to many fields, including cultural semiotics generally, biosemiotics, zoosemiotics, geosemiotics, etc. The concept is treated more fully in the collection of Lotman's writings published in English under the title "Universe of the Mind: A Semiotic Theory of Culture"(1990) Discussion[edit] Juri Lotman, a semiotician at Tartu University, Estonia, was inspired by Vladimir Vernadsky's terms biosphere and noosphere to propose that a semiosphere comes into being when any two Umwelten are communicating.[clarification needed] Later, Jesper Hoffmeyer
Jesper Hoffmeyer
suggested a variation to the effect that the community of organisms occupying the semiosphere will inhabit a "semiotic niche"
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Mikhail Bakhtin
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (/bɑːkˈtiːn, bɑːx-/;[2] Russian: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н, pronounced [mʲɪxɐˈil mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ bɐxˈtʲin]; 16 November [O.S. 4 November] 1895 – 7 March[3] 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician[4] and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language. His writings, on a variety of subjects, inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions (Marxism, semiotics, structuralism, religious criticism) and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology and psychology
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Charles Sanders Peirce
CDPT: Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms CP x.y: Collected Papers, volume x, paragraph y EP x:y: The Essential Peirce, volume x, page y W x:y Writings of Charles S. Peirce, volume x, page yv t e Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
(/pɜːrs/,[9] like "purse"; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years. Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics, and for his founding of pragmatism. An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician. He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science
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Kalevi Kull
Kalevi Kull
Kalevi Kull
(born on 12 August 1952, Tartu) is a biosemiotics professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia. He graduated from the University of Tartu
Tartu
in 1975. His earlier work dealt with ethology and field ecology. He has studied the mechanisms of species coexistence in species-rich communities and developed mathematical modelling in ecophysiology. Since 1975, he has been the main organiser of annual meetings of theoretical biology in Estonia. In 1992, he became a Professor of Ecophysiology
Ecophysiology
in the University of Tartu. In 1997, he joined the Department of Semiotics, and became a Professor in Biosemiotics. From 2006 to 2018, he was the Head of the Department of Semiotics
Semiotics
in the University of Tartu, Estonia
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