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Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
(SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area. SAGE directed and controlled the NORAD
NORAD
response to a Soviet air attack, operating in this role from the late 1950s into the 1980s. Its enormous computers and huge displays remain a part of cold war lore, and a common prop in movies such as Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
and Colossus. The processing power behind SAGE was supplied by the largest computer ever built, the AN/FSQ-7. Each SAGE Direction Center (DC) housed an FSQ-7 which occupied an entire floor, approximately 22,000 square feet not including supporting equipment
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Analog Computer
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change. As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines. Unlike digital signal processing, analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise, but are limited by analog noise. Analog computers were widely used in scientific and industrial applications where digital computers of the time lacked sufficient performance. Analog computers can have a very wide range of complexity
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Autopilot
An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of an aircraft without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required. Autopilots do not replace human operators, but instead they assist them in controlling the aircraft
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Cold War
Part of a series on the History of the Cold WarOrigins of the Cold WarWorld War II(Hiroshima and Nagasaki)War conferencesEastern BlocWestern BlocIron Curtain Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953) Cold War
Cold War
(1953–1962) Cold War
Cold War
(1962–1979) Cold War
Cold War
(1979–1985) Cold War
Cold War
(1985–1991)Frozen conflictsTimeline · ConflictsHistoriography Cold War
Cold War
IIThe Cold War
Cold War
was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 (the year U.S. diplomat George F
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Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, more commonly known as Dr. Strangelove, is a 1964 political satire black comedy film that satirizes the Cold War
Cold War
fears of a nuclear conflict between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States. The film was directed, produced, and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, stars Peter Sellers and George C. Scott, and features Sterling Hayden, Keenan Wynn, and Slim Pickens. Production took place in the United Kingdom. The film is loosely based on Peter George's thriller novel Red Alert (1958). The story concerns an unhinged United States
United States
Air Force general who orders a first strike nuclear attack on the Soviet Union
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Colossus
Colossus, Colossos, or the plural Colossi, comes from the Ancient Greek κολοσσός meaning a giant statue, and may refer to:Contents1 Statues 2 Amusement rides 3 Art, entertainment, and media3.1 Fictional entities 3.2 Film 3.3 Games 3.4 Literature 3.5 Music3.5.1 Albums 3.5.2 Songs4 Brands and enterprises 5 Computing 6 Warships 7 Other uses 8 See alsoStatues[edit]Any exceptionally large statue, see List of tallest statues; see also Category:Colossal statues Colossi of Memnon, two stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III Colossus
Colossus
of Barletta, a bronze statue of an unidentifie
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Light Gun
A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol. In aviation and shipping, it can also be a directional signal lamp. Modern screen-based light guns work by building an optical sensor into the gun, which receives its input from the light emitted by on-screen target(s)
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Teleprinter
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage (either from typed input or from data received from a remote source) and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media. These included a simple pair of wires; dedicated non-switched telephone circuits (leased lines); switched networks that operated similarly to the public telephone network (telex); and radio and microwave links (telex-on-radio, or TOR)
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Modem
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Modems are generally classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit(s), sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B(s)). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud
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US Air Force
The United States
United States
Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States
United States
Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest[13] and most technologically advanced[14] air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control. The U.S
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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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IBM Federal Systems
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Systems Integration – Owego (LMSI) was a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, in the Electronic Systems sector, located in Owego, New York, with approximately 4,000 employees. It used to be known as Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Federal Systems. Founded as IBM
IBM
Federal Systems in 1957, it was sold to Loral Corporation in 1994
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Operation Skyshield
Operation Sky Shield was a series of three large-scale military exercises conducted in the United States
United States
in 1960, 1961, and 1962 by the North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
(NORAD) and the Strategic Air Command (SAC) to test defenses against a Soviet air attack. The tests were intended to ensure that any attacks over the Canada–US border or coastlines would be detected and subsequently stopped. The results of the tests were classified until 1997, due to fears that they could be used by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in order to more effectively engage the US in the event of World War III. The United States
United States
and Canada assured citizens that its defenses were "99 percent effective."[1] However, when the results were partly declassified in 1997 it showed how unsuccessful the defense would be against a Soviet air attack
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Microcomputers
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).[2] It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board.[3] Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors. The predecessors to these computers, mainframes and minicomputers, were comparatively much larger and more expensive (though indeed present-day mainframes such as the IBM System z machines use one or more custom microprocessors as their CPUs)
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918,[2] it is the oldest independent air force in the world.[3] Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world.[4] Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history
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