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Selig Percy Amoils
invented the RETINAL CRYOPROBE and the ROTARY EPITHELIAL SCRUBBER MEDICAL CAREER PROFESSION Ophthalmologist
Ophthalmologist
SELIG PERCY AMOILS, FRCS , born 1933, is a South African ophthalmologist and biomedical engineering inventor. In 1965, Amoils refined the cryoextraction method of cataract surgery by developing a cryoprobe that was cooled through the Joule-Thomson effect of gas expansion. His system is still widely used in the fields of ophthalmology and gynaecology . Amoils was also awarded a patent for his "rotary epithelial scrubber", an improvement on the brush first developed by Ioannis Pallikaris that removes corneal epithelial cells in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy
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Glaucoma
GLAUCOMA is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss . The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma . Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil , redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent. Risk factors for glaucoma include increased pressure in the eye , a family history of the condition, migraines , high blood pressure , and obesity . For eye pressures a value of greater than 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa is often used with higher pressures leading to a greater risk
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Queen's Award For Enterprise
THE QUEEN\'S AWARDS FOR ENTERPRISE is an awards programme for British businesses and other organizations who excel at international trade, innovation or sustainable development. They are the highest official UK awards for British businesses. The scheme was established as THE QUEEN\'S AWARD TO INDUSTRY by a royal warrant of 30 November 1965, and individual categories have been known in the past as THE QUEEN\'S AWARDS FOR EXPORT, EXPORT ACHIEVEMENT, TECHNOLOGY, TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENT and ENVIRONMENTAL ACHIEVEMENT. The scheme also includes an award for individuals, THE QUEEN\\'S AWARD FOR ENTERPRISE PROMOTION
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Johannesburg, South Africa
JOHANNESBURG (/dʒoʊˈhænᵻsbɜːrɡ/ ; Afrikaans: ; also known as JOZI, JOBURG and EGOLI) is the largest city in South Africa
South Africa
and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world . It is the provincial largest city in Gauteng
Gauteng
, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg
Johannesburg
is not one of South Africa\'s three capital cities , it is the seat of the Constitutional Court . The city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade. In 2011, the population of the city of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
was 4,434,827, making it the largest city in South Africa. In the same year, the population of Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area was 7,860,781
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Retina
The RETINA (UK : /ˈrɛtɪnə/ RET-i-nə , US : /ˈrɛtnə, ˈrɛtənə/ RET-(ə-)nə , pl. retinae, /ˈrɛtiniː/ ; from Latin rēte, meaning "net") is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve . Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells
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Massachusetts Eye And Ear Infirmary
MASSACHUSETTS EYE AND EAR (MASS. EYE AND EAR, or MEE) is a specialty hospital located in Boston
Boston
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, United States
United States
, which focuses on ophthalmology (eye), otolaryngology (ear/nose/throat), and related medicine and research . Founded in 1824 as the Boston
Boston
Eye Infirmary (BEI), it has also been known as the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary (MCEEI), and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI). It is a teaching partner of Harvard Medical School . Mass. Eye and Ear has earned an international reputation for its successful treatment of the most difficult diseases and conditions of the eye, ear, nose, throat, head, and neck, and for its outstanding contributions to medical research and education. In 2015, MEEI has been ranked by U.S. News & World Report
U.S

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Baragwanath Hospital
CHRIS HANI BARAGWANATH HOSPITAL is the third largest hospital in the world after the West China Hospital
Hospital
of West China Medical Center of Sichuan University , and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Hospital
at Linkou, occupying 70 ha (170 acres), with 3,400 beds and 6,760 staff members. The hospital is in the Soweto
Soweto
area south of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, South Africa . It is one of the 40 Gauteng
Gauteng
provincial hospitals, and is financed and managed by the Gauteng
Gauteng
Provincial Department of Health. It is a teaching hospital for the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, along with the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Academic Hospital
Hospital
, Helen Joseph Hospital
Hospital
and the Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital
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Moorfields Eye Hospital
MOORFIELDS EYE HOSPITAL is a specialist NHS eye hospital in London, England run by Moorfields
Moorfields
Eye Hospital
Hospital
NHS Foundation Trust . Together with the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
, which is adjacent to the hospital, it is the oldest and largest centre for ophthalmic treatment, teaching and research in Europe
Europe
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Teaching and research * 3 Fundraising and associated charities * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links HISTORY Moorfields
Moorfields
Eye Hospital
Hospital
was founded on the Moorfields
Moorfields
in 1805 as the LONDON DISPENSARY FOR CURING DISEASES OF THE EYE AND EAR, by John Cunningham Saunders , assisted by John Richard Farre . It moved to its present site in 1899, and was nationalised in 1948
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Order Of Mapungubwe
The KINGDOM OF MAPUNGUBWE (1075–1220) was a pre-colonial state in Southern Africa located at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo rivers, south of Great Zimbabwe . The name is derived from either Venda
Venda
or Shona. The name may mean "Hill of Jackals" - see below. The kingdom was the first stage in a development that would culminate in the creation of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe in the 13th century, and with gold trading links to Rhapta and Kilwa Kisiwani on the African east coast. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe lasted about 80 years, and at its height its population was about 5000 people. The Mapungubwe Collection is a museum collection of artifacts found at the archaeological site and is housed in the Mapungubwe Museum in Pretoria
Pretoria

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Tebello Nyokong
TEBELLO NYOKONG (born October 20, 1951) is a South African chemist and professor at Rhodes University
Rhodes University
, and a recipient of the Presidency of South Africa's Order of Mapungubwe
Order of Mapungubwe
in Bronze. She was awarded the South African Chemical Institute Gold Medal in 2012, and named one of the top 10 most influential women in science and technology in Africa by IT News Africa. She is currently researching photo-dynamic therapy , an alternative cancer treatment method to chemotherapy . In 2007, she was one of the top three publishing scientists in South Africa, and in 2013 she was awarded the National Research Foundation's Lifetime Achievement Award. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Awards * 4 References EDUCATION "You believe you can be a wife and a mother and still be a bread winner and contribute to society
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Oliver Reginald Tambo
OLIVER REGINALD KAIZANA TAMBO (27 October 1917 – 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and revolutionary who served as President
President
of the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) from 1967 to 1991. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 International relationships * 3 Guerrilla activity * 4 Death * 5 Honours * 6 Literature * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links EARLY LIFETambo (fondly known as O. R.) was born on 27 October 1917 in the village of Nkantolo in Bizana in eastern Pondoland
Pondoland
in what is now Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
. His father, Mzimeni Tambo, the son of a farmer and an assistant salesperson at a local trading store. Mzimeni had four wives and ten children with all of them were illiterate. His mother, Mzimeni's third wife was called Julia
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John Maxwell Coetzee
JOHN MAXWELL "J. M." COETZEE ( , kuut-SEE ; Afrikaans: ; born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature . He relocated to Australia in 2002 and lives in Adelaide
Adelaide
. He became an Australian citizen in 2006. In 2013, Richard Poplak of the Daily Maverick described Coetzee as "inarguably the most celebrated and decorated living English-language author". Before receiving the 2003 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, Coetzee was awarded the Jerusalem Prize , CNA Prize (thrice), the Prix Femina Étranger, The Irish Times
The Irish Times
International Fiction Prize and the Booker Prize (twice), among other accolades
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Allan McLeod Cormack
CORMACK may refer to: * Cormack, Newfoundland and Labrador , a community in Canada * Cormack (surname) , people with the surname CormackSEE ALSO * McCormack
McCormack
*
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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