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Sejm
Government (239)     Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(238)      Independents (1)[a] Confidence and supply (8)     Free and Solidary
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Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
(/sləˈvɒnɪk/, /slæˈ-/),[2] also known as Old Church Slavic (/ˈslɑːvɪk, ˈslæv-/;[2][3] or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius
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Małgorzata Kidawa-Błońska
Małgorzata (Polish pronunciation: [mawɡɔˈʐata]) is a Polish given name derived from the Greek word margarita (μαργαρίτα) meaning "pearl". It is equivalent to the English "Margaret". Its diminutive forms include Małgośka, Małgosia, Gosia, Gośka, Gosieńka, Gosiunia. Name days[edit] Individuals named Małgorzata celebrate their name day the day closest after their birthday
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Upper House
An upper house, sometimes called a senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.[1] The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house
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Chambers Of Parliament
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.[1] Legislatures are usually unicameral, consisting of only one chamber, or bicameral, consisting of two, but there are rare examples of tricameral and tetracameral legislatures.Contents1 Bicameralism 2 Merging of chambers 3 Floor and committee 4 Security 5 References 6 See alsoBicameralism[edit] The lower house is almost always the originator of legislation, and the upper house is the body that offers the "second look" and decides whether to veto or approve the bills. In the United Kingdom legislation can be originated in either house, but the lower house can ultimately prevail if the two houses repeatedly disagree
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Universal Suffrage
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adults, subject only to minor exceptions.[1] Many countries make an exception for small numbers of adults that are considered mentally incapable of voting. Other countries also exclude people convicted of serious crimes or people in jail, but this is considered a violation of a basic human right in an increasing number of countries.[citation needed] In some countries, including the United States, it is very difficult and expensive[vague] for convicted criminals to regain this right even after having served their jail sentence, but U.S voting laws are not national, but subject to federalism so some states have more lenient voting laws
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Śródmieście, Warsaw
Śródmieście ([ɕrudˈmʲeɕt͡ɕe] meaning "city centre", "downtown") is the central borough (dzielnica) of the city of Warsaw. The best known neighborhoods in the borough are the Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto). The area is home to the most important national and municipal institutions, many businesses, higher education establishments (e.g. University of Warsaw, Warsaw
Warsaw
University of Technology and Medical Academy) and theatres
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Proportional Representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation
(PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.[1] If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party.[2] The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them
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Open List
Open list
Open list
describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected. This as opposed to closed list, which allows only active members, party officials, or consultants to determine the order of its candidates and gives the general voter no influence at all on the position of the candidates placed on the party list. Additionally, an open list system allows voters to select individuals rather than parties. Different systems give voter different amounts of influence
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Opposition (parliamentary)
Parliamentary
Parliamentary
opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. This article uses the term government as it is used in Parliamentary
Parliamentary
systems, i.e. meaning the administration or the cabinet rather than the state. The title of "Official Opposition" usually goes to the largest of the parties sitting in opposition with its leader being given the title "Leader of the Opposition". In First Past the Post
First Past the Post
assemblies, where the tendency to gravitate into two major parties or party groupings operates strongly, government and opposition roles can go to the two main groupings serially in alternation. The more proportional a representative system, the greater the likelihood of multiple political parties appearing in the parliamentary debating chamber
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Confidence And Supply
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house. A confidence-and-supply agreement is one whereby a party or independent members of parliament will support the government in motions of confidence and appropriation or budget (supply) votes, by either voting in favour or abstaining. However, parties and independent members normally retain the right to otherwise vote in favour of their own policies or on conscience on legislative bills.[1][2][3] A coalition government is a more formal arrangement than a confidence-and-supply agreement, in that members from junior parties (i.e
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Voting System
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Casimir III Of Poland
Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
(Polish: Kazimierz
Kazimierz
III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1333 to 1370. He was the son of King Władysław I ("the Elbow-high") and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.[1] Kazimierz
Kazimierz
inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian."[2] Kazimierz
Kazimierz
built extensively and founded the University of Kraków[3], the oldest Polish university
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Wiec
Veche (Russian: вече, Polish: wiec, Ukrainian: віче, Belarusian: веча, Church Slavonic: вѣштє) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries.[1] In Novgorod, where the veche acquired the greatest prominence, the veche was broadly similar to the Norse thing or the Swiss Landsgemeinde.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Rus2.1 Novgorod Republic 2.2 Pskov republic3 Poland 4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 Further readingEtymology[edit] The word is inherited from Proto-Slavonic *větje , meaning 'council', 'counsel' or 'talk' (which is also represented in the word "soviet", both ultimately deriving from Proto-Slavic verbal stem of *větiti 'to talk, speak')[1]. There exists misinformation claiming a relation to "-vice" in "advice", and somewhat more distantly to Sanskrit "Veda", Germanic words like "wise" (English), "weten" (Dutch, "to know"), "witch" (Slavonic: věšt-ica) and many others, which however come from a different Indo-European root
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Kingdom Of Poland (1385–1569)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
joined in a personal union created by the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
(1385). The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland
Poland
for two centuries. See also[edit]Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Culture of medieval Poland History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
(1386–1572)Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Poland
Poland
— Jagiellonian Dynasty (1385–1569).References[edit]^ " Gaude Mater Polonia
Gaude Mater Polonia
Creation and History"
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