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Sedimentation
Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration, or electromagnetism. In geology, sedimentation is often used as the opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport. In that sense, it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. Settling
Settling
is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, where as sedimentation is the termination of the settling process. In estuarine environments, settling can be influenced by the presence or absence of vegetation
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Intrusive Rock
Intrusive rock
Intrusive rock
(also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.[1][2][3]Contents1 Formation 2 Related forms 3 Related terms 4 Intrusive suite 5 Variations 6 Structural types 7 Characteristics 8 See also 9 ReferencesFormation[edit] Intrusive rock
Intrusive rock
forms within Earth's crust from the crystallization of magma. Many mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada in California, are formed mostly from large granite (or related rock) intrusions; see Sierra Nevada batholith. Related forms[edit] Intrusions are one of the two ways igneous rock can form; the other is extrusive rock, that is, a volcanic eruption or similar event. Technically speaking, an intrusion is any formation of intrusive igneous rock; rock formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the planet
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Circular Sector
A circular sector or circle sector (symbol: ⌔), is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r displaystyle r the radius of the circle, and L displaystyle L is the arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a half-disk and is bounded by a diameter and a semicircle
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Geology
Geology
Geology
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure
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Exner Equation
In mathematics, an equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables. Solving the equation consists of determining which values of the variables make the equality true. Variables are also called unknowns and the values of the unknowns which satisfy the equality are called solutions of the equation. There are two kinds of equations: identities and conditional equations. An identity is true for all values of the variable. A conditional equation is true for only particular values of the variables.[1][2] An equation is written as two expressions, connected by a equals sign ("="). The expressions on the two sides of the equals sign are called the "left-hand side" and "right-hand side" of the equation The most common type of equation is an algebraic equation, in which the two sides are algebraic expressions. Each side of an algebraic equation will contain one or more terms
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Landform
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Earth
or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, and valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays, peninsulas, and seas,[citation needed] including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.Contents1 Physical characteristics 2 Hierarchy of classes 3 Recent developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPhysical characteristics[edit] Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, mounds, hills, ridges, cliffs, valleys, rivers, peninsulas, volcanoes, and numerous other structural and size-scaled (i.e. ponds vs
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Depositional Record
The geologic record in stratigraphy, paleontology and other natural sciences refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata — deposits laid down by volcanism or by deposition of sediment derived from weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface. According to the law of superposition, sedimentary and volcanic rock layers are deposited on top of each other
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Climate Change
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Climate
Climate
change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate
Climate
change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions
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Macromolecule
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers). They are typically composed of thousands of atoms or more
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Coagulation (other)
Coagulation
Coagulation
is the process by which blood forms clots. Coagulation
Coagulation
may also refer to: Coagulation
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Buoyant Mass
In physics, buoyancy (/ˈbɔɪənsi, -əntsi, ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/)[1][2] or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks
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Principle Of Original Horizontality
The Principle of Original Horizontality states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity .[1] It is a relative dating technique. The principle is important to the analysis of folded and tilted strata. It was first proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno
Nicholas Steno
(1638–1686). From these observations is derived the conclusion that the Earth has not been static and that great forces have been at work over long periods of time, further leading to the conclusions of the science of plate tectonics; that movement and collisions of large plates of the Earth's crust is the cause of folded strata. As one of Steno's Laws, the Principle of Original Horizontality served well in the nascent days of geological science. However, it is now known that not all sedimentary layers are deposited purely horizontally
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Law Of Superposition
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy. In its plainest form, it states that in undeformed stratigraphic sequences, the oldest strata will be at the bottom of the sequence. This is important to stratigraphic dating, which assumes that the law of superposition holds true and that an object cannot be older than the materials of which it is composed. The law was first proposed in the late 17th century by the Danish scientist Nicolas Steno.Contents1 Archaeological considerations 2 See also 3 References3.1 SourcesArchaeological considerations[edit] Superposition in archaeology and especially in stratification use during excavation is slightly different as the processes involved in laying down archaeological strata are somewhat different from geological processes
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