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Second-language Acquisition
Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education. A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage, the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language
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Language Education
Language
Language
education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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U.S. Department Of State
The United States
United States
Department of State (DOS),[3] often referred to as the State Department, is the United States
United States
federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.[4] Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the United States, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the United States
United States
at the United Nations
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China)Language codesISO 639-1 koISO 639-2 korISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto KoreanLinguist Listokm Middle Korean  oko Old KoreanGlottolog kore1280[2]Linguasphere 45-AAA-aCountries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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National Virtual Translation Center
The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) is a United States government organization established in February 2003 which provides "timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community". Section 907 of the USA PATRIOT Act[1] adopted in 2001 requested a report on the establishment of such a translation center. It was then formed by section 313 of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003.[2] The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the executive agency in charge of the organization. See also[edit]World News Connection Defense Language OfficeReferences[edit]^ USA PATRIOT Act (U.S. H.R. 3162, Public Law 107-56), Title IX, Sec. 907. ^ Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (U.S. H.R. 4628, Public Law 107-306)External links[edit]Official websiteThis United States government–related article is a stub
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Language Acquisition
Language
Language
acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language
Language
acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits,[1] because non-humans do not communicate by using language.[2] Language
Language
acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. In addition to speech, reading and writing a language with an entirely different script compounds the complexities of true foreign language literacy. Linguists who are interested in child language acquisition for many years question how language is acquired, lidz et al
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Interlanguage Fossilization
Interlanguage fossilization is a phenomenon of second language acquisition (SLA) in which second language learners develop and retain a linguistic system, or interlanguage, that is self-contained and different from both the learner's first language and the target language.[1] This linguistic system has been variously called interlanguage,[2] approximative system,[1] idiosyncratic dialects, or transitional dialects.[3]Contents1 Development of interlanguage 2 Fossilization of interlanguage 3 Research 4 See also 5 References5.1 Attribution 5.2 Notes 5.3 SourcesDevelopment of interlanguage[edit] According to Corder[4] this temporary and changing grammatical system, interlanguage, which is constructed by the learner, approximates the grammatical system of the target language
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Subject (grammar)
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence. These definitions seem clear enough for simple sentences such as the above, but as will be shown in the article below, problems in defining the subject arise when an attempt is made to extend the definitions to more complex sentences and to languages other than English
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Connectionism
Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science and philosophy of mind, that attempts to represent mental or behavioral phenomena as emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units. There are many forms of connectionism, but the most common forms use neural network models.Contents1 Basic principles1.1 Spreading activation 1.2 Neural networks 1.3 Biological realism 1.4 Learning2 History2.1 Parallel distributed processing (PDP) 2.2 Earlier work 2.3 Connectionism apart from PDP3 Connectionism vs. computationalism debate 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBasic principles[edit] The central connectionist principle is that mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of simple and often uniform units. The form of the connections and the units can vary from model to model
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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