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Second-language Acquisition
SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA), SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING, or L2 (LANGUAGE 2) ACQUISITION, is the process by which people learn a second language . Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics , but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education . A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage , the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China
China
, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Japanese Language
JAPANESE (日本語, Nihongo, or ( listen )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan
Japan
, where it is the national language . It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan ) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean , is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu , Austroasiatic , and the now-discredited Altaic , but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Arabic
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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U.S. Department Of State
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), often referred to as the STATE DEPARTMENT, is the United States
United States
federal executive department that advises the President and leads the country in foreign policy issues. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the United States
United States
, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the United States
United States
at the United Nations
United Nations
. The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established
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Cognitive Psychology
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY is the study of mental processes such as "attention , language use, memory , perception , problem solving, creativity , and thinking ". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology , social psychology , personality psychology , abnormal psychology , developmental psychology , and economics
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Universal Grammar
UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) in linguistics , is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty , usually credited to Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
. The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience . With more linguistic stimuli received in the course of psychological development , children then adopt specific syntactic rules that conform to UG. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar", and stands contrasted with other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive , descriptive and pedagogical . The advocates of this theory emphasize and partially rely on the poverty of the stimulus (POS) argument and the existence of some universal properties of natural human languages . However, the latter especially has not been firmly established, as some linguists have argued languages are so diverse that such universality is rare
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ko ISO 639-2 kor ISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto Korean LINGUIST LIST okm Middle Korean oko Old Korean GLOTTOLOG kore1280 LINGUASPHERE 45-AAA-a Countries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green). THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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National Virtual Translation Center
The NATIONAL VIRTUAL TRANSLATION CENTER (NVTC) is a United States government organization established in February 2003 which provides "timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community ". Section 907 of the USA PATRIOT Act adopted in 2001 requested a report on the establishment of such a translation center. It was then formed by section 313 of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 . The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the executive agency in charge of the organization. SEE ALSO * World News Connection * Defense Language Office REFERENCES * ^ USA PATRIOT Act (U.S. H.R. 3162, Public Law 107-56), Title IX, Sec. 907. * ^ Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (U.S
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Pro-drop Language
A PRO-DROP LANGUAGE (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate). The phenomenon of "pronoun-dropping" is also commonly referred to as zero or null anaphora . In the case of pro-drop languages, null anaphora refers to the fact that that the null position does have referential properties, meaning it is not a null dummy pronoun . Pro-drop is only licensed in languages that have a positive setting of the pro-drop parameter, which allows the null element to be identified by its governor. In pro-drop languages with a highly inflected verbal morphology, the expression of the subject pronoun is considered unnecessary because the verbal inflection indicates the person and number of the subject, thus the referent of the null subject can be inferred from the grammatical inflection on the verb
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Lexicon
A LEXICON is the vocabulary of a person, language , or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical ). In linguistics , a LEXICON is a language's inventory of lexemes . The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words." Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar , a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes , which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes ). In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon. Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included
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Pidgin
A PIDGIN /ˈpɪdʒɪn/ , or PIDGIN LANGUAGE, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade , or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia
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Pronoun
In linguistics and grammar , a PRONOUN (abbreviated PRO) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase . It is a particular case of a pro-form . Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech , but some modern theorists would not consider them to form a single class, in view of the variety of functions they perform. Subtypes include personal pronouns , reflexive and reciprocal pronouns, possessive pronouns , demonstrative pronouns , relative pronouns , interrogative pronouns , and indefinite pronouns . :1–34 The use of pronouns often involves anaphora , where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on an antecedent . This applies especially to third-person personal pronouns and relative pronouns. For example, in the sentence That poor man looks as if he needs a new coat, the antecedent of the pronoun he is the noun phrase that poor man. The adjective associated with pronoun is PRONOMINAL
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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