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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Geologic Time Scale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
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Ordnance Datum
In the British Isles, an ordnance datum or OD is a vertical datum used by an ordnance survey as the basis for deriving altitudes on maps. A spot height may be expressed as AOD for "above ordnance datum". Usually mean sea level (MSL) is used for the datum. In particular:In Great Britain, OD for the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
is ODN (Ordnance Datum Newlyn), defined as the MSL at Newlyn
Newlyn
in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, OD was taken from the level of the Victoria Dock, Liverpool (ODL)
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Amsterdam Ordnance Datum
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Ordnance Datum or Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe. Originally created for use in the Netherlands, its height was used by Prussia
Prussia
in 1879 for defining Normalnull, and in 1955 by other European countries. In the 1990s, it was used as the reference level for the United European leveling Network (UELN) which in turn led to the European Vertical Reference System (EVRS).[1] Mayor Johannes Hudde
Johannes Hudde
of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in a way came up with the idea after he expanded the sea dike after a flood in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in 1675. Of course a dike should be storm-resistant to protect a city against flooding, and in this case a margin of "9 feet and 5 inches" (2.67 m - margin is defined in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
feet) was deemed enough to cope with rising water
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Salinity
Salinity
Salinity
is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in g   salt k g   sea   water displaystyle frac g textrm salt kg textrm sea textrm water (note that this is technically dimensionless)
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Topographic Map
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map
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CNES
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose"). Its headquarters are located in central Paris and it is under the supervision of the French Ministries of Defence and Research. It operates from the Toulouse Space Center
Toulouse Space Center
and Guiana Space Centre, but also has payloads launched from space centres operated by other countries. The president of CNES
CNES
is Jean-Yves Le Gall.[2] CNES
CNES
is member of Institute of Space, its Applications and Technologies
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Geography
Geography
Geography
(from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description"[1]) is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.[2] The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Geography
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Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM), known informally as Schiphol (Dutch: Luchthaven Schiphol, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʏxtˌɦaːvə(n) ˌsxɪpˈɦɔl]), is the main international airport of the Netherlands. It is located 9 kilometres (5.6 miles)[4] southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer, North Holland. It is the third busiest airport in Europe
Europe
in terms of passengers. The airport is built as a single-terminal concept: one large terminal split into three large departure halls. Schiphol is the hub for KLM
KLM
and its regional affiliate KLM
KLM
Cityhopper as well as for Corendon Dutch Airlines, Martinair, Transavia
Transavia
and TUI fly Netherlands
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Plumb-bob
A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line. It is essentially the vertical equivalent of a "water level". The instrument has been used since at least the time of ancient Egypt[1] to ensure that constructions are "plumb", or vertical. It is also used in surveying, to establish the nadir with respect to gravity of a point in space
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Atmospheric Sciences
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal)
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Flight Level
In aviation and aviation meteorology, a flight level (FL) is defined as a vertical altitude at standard pressure, nominally expressed in hundreds of feet. The pressure is computed assuming an International standard sea-level pressure datum of 1013.25 hPa (29.92 inHg), and therefore is not necessarily the same as the aircraft's actual altitude either above mean sea level or above ground level.Contents1 Background 2 Definition 3 Transition altitude 4 Quadrantal rule 5 Semicircular/hemispheric rule 6 Reduced vertical separation minima 7 Metric flight levels7.1 Mongolia, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan 7.2 People's Republic of China8 Flight levels in Russian Federation 9 See also 10 ReferencesBackground[edit] Flight levels are used to ensure safe vertical separation between aircraft, despite natural local variations in atmospheric air pressure
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