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Scuff Sanding
Sandpaper
Sandpaper
and glasspaper[1] are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face. Despite the use of the names neither sand nor glass are now used in the manufacture of these products as they have been replaced by other abrasives such as aluminium oxide or silicon carbide. Sandpaper
Sandpaper
is produced in a range of grit sizes and is used to remove material from surfaces, either to make them smoother (for example, in painting and wood finishing), to remove a layer of material (such as old paint), or sometimes to make the surface rougher (for example, as a preparation for gluing). It is common to use the name of the abrasive when describing the paper, e.g. "aluminium oxide paper", or "silicon carbide paper". The grit size of sandpaper is usually stated as a number that is inversely related to the particle size
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Coated Abrasive
A coated abrasive is an abrasive grain bonded to a flexible substrate using adhesives.[1] Common substrates are paper, cloth, vulcanized fiber, and plastic films and come in grit sizes range from very coarse (~2 mm) to ultrafine (submicrometre). The international standard for coated abrasives is ISO 6344. Sandpaper
Sandpaper
and emery cloth are coated abrasives for hand use, usually non-precision. These two terms are used by general public in place of "coated abrasives". Other coated abrasive forms include sanding cords, pads, belts, and discs
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Glass
Glass
Glass
is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles
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Flint
Flint
Flint
is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz,[1][2] categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones.[3][4] Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone
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Garnet
Garnets ( /ˈɡɑːrnɪt/) are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition
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Woodworking
Woodworking
Woodworking
is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making ( Cabinetry
Cabinetry
and Furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.Contents1 History1.1 Ancient Egypt 1.2 Ancient Rome 1.3 Ancient China2 Modern day 3 Materials 4 Notable woodworkers 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References7.1 Further reading8 External linksHistory[edit]Ancient Egyptian woodworkingAlong with stone, clay and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood
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Emery (mineral)
Emery (or corundite) is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder. It largely consists of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide), mixed with other species such as the iron-bearing spinels, hercynite, and magnetite, and also rutile (titania). Industrial emery may contain a variety of other minerals and synthetic compounds such as magnesia, mullite, and silica. It is black or dark grey in colour, less dense than translucent-brown corundum with a specific gravity of between 3.5 and 3.8. Because it can be a mixture of minerals, no definite Mohs hardness can be assigned: the hardness of corundum is 9 and that of some spinel-group minerals is near 8, but the hardness of others such as magnetite is near 6. Crushed or naturally eroded emery (known as black sand) is used as an abrasive — for example, on an emery board and emery cloth, as a traction enhancer in asphalt and tarmac mixtures. Turkey and Greece are the main suppliers of the world's emery
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Aluminium Oxide
Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina (regardless of whether the element is spelled aluminum or aluminium), and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire
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Zirconium Oxide
Zirconium
Zirconium
dioxide (ZrO 2), sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. Its most naturally occurring form, with a monoclinic crystalline structure, is the mineral baddeleyite
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Chromium(III) Oxide
Chromium(III) oxide
Chromium(III) oxide
(or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula Cr 2O 3. It is one of the principal oxides of chromium and is used as a pigment. In nature, it occurs as the rare mineral eskolaite.Contents1 Structure and properties 2 Occurrence 3 Production 4 Applications 5 Reactions 6 See also 7 ReferencesStructure and properties[edit] Cr 2O 3 adopts the corundum structure, consisting of a hexagonal close packed array of oxide anions with ⅔ of the octahedral holes occupied by chromium
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Micrometre
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;[1] SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 6994100000000000000♠1×10−6 metre (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch).[1] The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm
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Diamond
Diamond
Diamond
is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure. At room temperature and pressure it is metastable and graphite is the stable form, but diamond almost never converts to graphite. Diamond
Diamond
is renowned for its superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, it has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial applications of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells. Because of its extremely rigid lattice, diamond can be contaminated by very few types of impurities, such as boron and nitrogen
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Soap
Soap
Soap
is both a salt of a fatty acid[1] and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.Contents1 Kinds of soaps1.1 Non-toilet soaps1.1.1 Production of metallic soaps1.2 Toilet soaps1.2.1 Production of toilet soaps 1.2.2 History1.2.2.1 Ancient Middle East 1.2.2.2 Roman Empire 1.2.2.3 Ancient China 1.2.2.4 Islamic Middle East 1.2.2.5 Medieval Europe 1.2.2.6 15th–19th centuries 1.2.2.7 Liquid soap1.2.3 Soap-making for hobbyists2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksKinds of soaps Since they are salt of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl)
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Mylar
BoPET
BoPET
(Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation. A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other polyester films under different brand names
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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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