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Scott C. Bone
Scott Cardelle Bone (February 15, 1860 – January 26, 1936) was the fourth Territorial Governor of Alaska, serving from 1921–1925. A Republican, he was appointed by President Warren G. Harding. He is perhaps best known for making the decision to use dog sleds to transport diphtheria antitoxin 674 miles rather than use a plane in the now-famous 1925 Serum Run, (also known as the "Great Race of Mercy") from which the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
stems. Bone was born in Shelby County, Indiana
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Alaska Territory
FlagTerritory of AlaskaCapital JuneauGovernment Organized incorporated territoryGovernor •  1912–1913 Walter E. Clark •  1958–1959 Waino E. HendricksonHistory •  District of Alaska August 24, 1912 •  Statehood January 3, 1959Part of a series on theHistory of AlaskaPrehistory Russian America
Russian America
(1733–1867) Department of Alaska
Alaska
(1867–1884) District of Alaska
District of Alaska
(1884–1912) Territory of Alaska
Alaska
(1912–1959) State of Alaska
Alaska
(1959–present) Other topicsv t eThe Territory of Alaska
Alaska
or Alaska
Alaska
Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 24, 1912, until January 3, 1959, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Alaska
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Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
(/ˈfrɪdtʃɒf ˈnænsən/ FRID-chof NAN-sən;[needs Norwegian IPA] 10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. In his youth he was a champion skier and ice skater. He led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland
Greenland
interior in 1888, traversing the island on cross-country skis. He won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 86°14′ during his North Pole
North Pole
expedition of 1893–96
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Togo (dog)
Togo (October 17, 1913 – December 5, 1929) was the lead sled dog of Leonhard Seppala and his dog sled team in the 1925 serum run to Nome across central and northern Alaska.Contents1 Background 2 Great Race of Mercy 3 Aftermath 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Togo was one of the offspring of Seppala's former lead dog, "Suggen".[1] He was named after the Japanese admiral Tōgō Heihachirō.[2] Initially, he had not looked like he had potential as a sled dog. He grew to about 48 pounds (22 kg) in his adulthood, which was small compared to the other sled dogs, and had a black, brown, and gray coat that made him appear perpetually dirty.[3] Togo was ill as a young puppy and required intensive nursing from Seppala's wife. He was very bold and rowdy, thus seen as "difficult and mischievous", showing "all the signs of becoming a ... canine delinquent" according to one reporter
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Leonhard Seppala
Leonhard "Sepp" Seppala /ˈlɛnərd ˈsɛpələ/ (September 14, 1877 – January 28, 1967) was a Norwegian-born American Sled dog
Sled dog
musher who played a pivotal role in the 1925 serum run to Nome[1] and participated in the 1932 Winter Olympics. Seppala introduced the work dogs used by Native Siberians at the time to the American public; the breed came to be known as the Siberian Husky in the English-speaking world. The Leonhard Seppala
Leonhard Seppala
Humanitarian Award, which honors excellence in sled dog care is named in honour of him.[1]:64[2][3][4]Contents1 Background 2 Racing career 3 Role in the "Serum Run" of 1925 4 After the Serum Run 5 References 6 Other sourcesBackground[edit] Leonhard Seppala
Leonhard Seppala
was born in the village of Skibotn
Skibotn
in Storfjord municipality, Troms
Troms
county, Norway
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Iditarod Trail
The Iditarod Trail, also known historically as the Seward-to-Nome Trail, refers to a thousand-plus mile (1,600 km) historic and contemporary trail system in the US state of Alaska. The trail began as a composite of trails established by Alaskan native peoples. Its route crossed several mountain ranges and valleys and passed through numerous historical settlements en route to Nome. The discovery of gold brought thousands of people over this route beginning in 1910. Roadhouses for people and dog barns sprang up every 20 or so miles. By 1918 World War I
World War I
and the lack of 'gold fever' resulted in far less travel. The trail might have been forgotten except for the 1925 diphtheria outbreak in Nome. In one of the final great feats of dog sleds, twenty drivers and teams carried the life-saving serum 674 miles (1,085 km) in 127 hours
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Gunnar Kaasen
Gunnar Kaasen
Gunnar Kaasen
(March 11, 1882 – November 27, 1960) was a Norwegian-born musher who delivered a cylinder containing 300,000 units of diphtheria antitoxin to Nome, Alaska, in 1925, as the last leg of a dog sled relay that saved the U.S. city from an epidemic.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 Last leg of the Great Race of Mercy 3 Celebrity 4 References 5 Other sourceBackground[edit] Gunnar E. Kaasen was born the son of Hans and Anna Kaasen in Burfjorddalen, in Troms county, Norway. He went to the United States to mine for gold in 1903, in the wake of the discovery of gold-bearing sands on Cape Nome in 1898, which triggered one of several gold rushes in the state between 1891 and 1898. Kaasen became an experienced musher and a resident of Nome. While the boom was spent by 1905, the port of Nome sits on Norton Sound, which is usually ice locked and inaccessible by ship between October and June
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Samuel Balto
Samuel Johannesen Balto
Balto
(May 5, 1861 – 1921) was a Norwegian - Sami explorer and adventurer. Balto
Balto
skied with Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
across Greenland
Greenland
in 1888–89.[1] [2]Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 References 4 Other sources 5 External linksBiography[edit] Samuel Johannesen Balto
Balto
was born in Karasjok
Karasjok
in Finnmark
Finnmark
county, Norway. He had worked as a lumberjack, as well as in reindeer herding and fishing. In 1888, Balto
Balto
was recruited by Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
for Nansen's Trans- Greenland
Greenland
Expedition
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Nenana, Alaska
Nenana /nɛˈnænə/ (Toghotili[5] in Lower Tanana language) is a Home Rule City in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census
Census
Area of the Unorganized Borough in the Interior of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska. Nenana developed as a Lower Tanana community at the confluence where the tributary Nenana River enters the Tanana. The population was 378 at the 2010 census. Completed in 1923, the 700-foot-long (210 m) Mears Memorial Bridge was built over the Tanana River
Tanana River
as part of the state's railroad project connecting Anchorage
Anchorage
and Fairbanks.Contents1 History and culture 2 Geography and climate 3 Demographics 4 Public services 5 Economy and transport 6 Popular culture 7 References 8 External linksHistory and culture[edit] Nenana is in the westernmost portion of Tanana territory
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Alaska Railroad
The Alaska
Alaska
Railroad
Railroad
(reporting mark ARR) is a Class II railroad[1][2] which extends from Seward and Whittier, in the south of the state of Alaska, in the United States, to Fairbanks
Fairbanks
(passing through Anchorage), and beyond to Eielson Air Force Base
Eielson Air Force Base
and Fort Wainwright in the interior of that state. Uniquely (for the US), it carries both freight and passengers throughout its system, including Denali National Park. The railroad has a mainline over 470 miles (760 km) long and is well over 500 miles (800 km) including branch lines and siding tracks. It is currently owned by the state of Alaska
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Jason (ship)
Jason was a Norwegian whaling vessel laid down in 1881 in Rødsverven, Norway, the same shipyard which later built Ernest Shackleton's ship Endurance. The ship, financed by Christen Christensen,[1] an entrepreneur from Sandefjord, was noted for her participation in an 1892-1893 Antarctic
Antarctic
expedition led by Carl Anton Larsen.[2] The vessel reached 68°10'S, and set a new record for distance travelled south along the eastern Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula. The ship's first mate during the expedition was Søren Andersen, also of Sandefjord
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Karasjok
Karasjok
Karasjok
( pronunciation  (help·info)) or Kárášjohka (Northern Sami) or Kaarasjoki (Finnish) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Karasjok. Other villages include Dorvonjárga, Šuoššjávri, and Váljohka. The 5,453-square-kilometre (2,105 sq mi) municipality is the 2nd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Karasjok is the 283rd most populous municipality in Norway
Norway
with a population of 2,696
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Finnmark
Finnmark
Finnmark
[ˈfinmɑrk] ( listen) (Northern Sami: Finnmárku; Finnish: Finnmark; Russian: Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway. By land, it borders Troms
Troms
county to the west, Finland
Finland
(Lapland region) to the south, and Russia
Russia
(Murmansk Oblast) to the east, and by water, the Norwegian Sea
Norwegian Sea
(Atlantic Ocean) to the northwest, and the Barents Sea ( Arctic
Arctic
Ocean) to the north and northeast. The county was formerly known as Finmarkens amt or Vardøhus amt. Since 2002, it has had two official names: Finnmark
Finnmark
(Norwegian) and Finnmárku (Northern Sami)
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Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
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Balto
Balto
Balto
(1919 – March 14, 1933) was a Siberian husky
Siberian husky
and sled dog who led his team on the final leg of the 1925 serum run to Nome, in which diphtheria antitoxin was transported from Anchorage, Alaska, to Nenana, Alaska, by train and then to Nome by dog sled to combat an outbreak of the disease.[1] Balto
Balto
was named after the Sami explorer Samuel Balto. Balto
Balto
rested at the Cleveland
Cleveland
Zoo until his death on March 14, 1933 at the age of 14
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Balto (film)
Balto
Balto
is a 1995 American live-action/animated epic drama adventure film directed by Simon Wells, produced by Amblin Entertainment
Amblin Entertainment
and distributed by Universal Pictures. The film is loosely based on a true story about the dog of the same name who helped save children from the diphtheria epidemic in the 1925 serum run to Nome. The live-action portions of the film were shot at Central Park
Central Park
in New York City. The film was the third and final animated feature produced by Steven Spielberg's Amblimation animation studio. Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy and Bonne Radford acted as executive producers on the film
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