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Scientific Progress
Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.Contents1 Discontinuous model of scientific progress 2 History of science
History of science
as a model of scientific progress 3 Origins of the concept 4 Quotes on scientific progress 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Bibliography 8 External linksDiscontinuous model of scientific progress[edit] Several philosophers of science have supported arguments that the progress of science is discontinuous. In that case, progress isn't a continuous accumulation, but rather a revolutionary process where brand new ideas are adopted and old ideas become abandoned. Thomas Kuhn was a major proponent of this model of scientific progress, as explained in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This is especially supported by studying the incommensurability of theories
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Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.[8] Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,[9] and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.[1] The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton.[10] Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.[9] Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
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History Of Science
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship.) Science
Science
is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real world phenomena. Historiography
Historiography
of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science. The English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell
William Whewell
in the 19th century.[1] Previously, investigators of nature called themselves "natural philosophers"
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Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
(/ˈæzɪmɒv/;[b][c] c. January 2, 1920[a] – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston
Boston
University. He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer who wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards.[d] His books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification.[1] Asimov wrote hard science fiction. Along with Robert A. Heinlein
Robert A. Heinlein
and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime.[2] Asimov's most famous work is the "Foundation" series;[3] his other major series are the "Galactic Empire" series and the Robot
Robot
series
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The Relativity Of Wrong
Relativity may refer to:Contents1 Physics 2 Social sciences 3 Popular culture3.1 Television 3.2 Music 3.3 Other4 See alsoPhysics[edit]Galilean relativity, Galileo's conception of relativity Numerical relativity, a subfield of computational physics that aims to establish numerical solutions to Einstein's field equations in general relativity Principle of relativity, used in Einstein's theories and derived from Galileo's principle Theory of relativity, a general treatment that refers to both special relativity and general relativityGeneral relativity, Albert Einstein's theory of gravitation Spec
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David Gross
David Jonathan Gross (/ɡroʊs/; born February 19, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist. Along with Frank Wilczek and David Politzer, he was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics for their discovery of asymptotic freedom. David Gross
David Gross
is the Chancellor’s Chair Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and was formerly the KITP director and holder of their Frederick W. Gluck Chair in Theoretical Physics . He is also a faculty member in the UC Santa Barbara Physics Department
UC Santa Barbara Physics Department
and is currently affiliated with the Institute for Quantum Studies at Chapman University in California
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The Logic Of Scientific Discovery
The Logic of Scientific Discovery
The Logic of Scientific Discovery
is a 1959 book about the philosophy of science by Karl Popper. Popper rewrote his book in English from the 1934 German original, titled Logik der Forschung. Zur Erkenntnistheorie der modernen Naturwissenschaft, which literally translates as, "Logic of Research: On the Epistemology
Epistemology
of Modern Natural Science"'.[1] The work is famous.[2]Contents1 Summary 2 Reception 3 Notes 4 External linksSummary[edit] Popper argues that science should adopt a methodology based on falsifiability, because no number of experiments can ever prove a theory, but a reproducible experiment or observation can refute one. According to Popper: "non-reproducible single occurrences are of no significance to science. Thus a few stray basic statements contradicting a theory will hardly induce us to reject it as falsified
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Karl Popper
Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[7] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.[8][9][10] He is generally regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science.[11][12][13] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. Popper is also known for his opposition to the classical justificationist account of knowledge, which he replaced with critical rationalism, namely "the first non-justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy."[14] In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he came to believe made a flourishing open society possible
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Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates
of Kos
Kos
(Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles
Pericles
(Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine"[1][2] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine
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Empirical Validation
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.[1] The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría). After Immanuel Kant, in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained a posteriori knowledge (in contrast to a priori knowledge).Contents1 Meaning 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 External linksMeaning[edit] Empirical evidence is information that verifies the truth ( which accurately corresponds to reality) or falsity (inaccuracy) of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when based on empirical evidence (although some empiricists believe that there are other ways of gaining knowledge)
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Electron Microscope
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects
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Microscopist
Microscopy
Microscopy
is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy. Optical microscopy
Optical microscopy
and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image
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Problem-solving
CognitionConcept Reasoning Decision making Problem solvingNumerical cognitionNumerosity adaptation effect Approximate number system Parallel individuation systemv t eNeuropsychologyTopics Brain
Brain
regions Clinical neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuroscience Dementia Human brain Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Neuropsychological assessment Neuropsychological rehabilitation Traumatic brain injury Brain
Brain
functionsArousal Attention Consciousness Decision making Executive functions Natural language Learning Memory Motor coordination Perception Planning Problem solving ThoughtPeopleArthur L. Benton David Bohm Antonio Damasio Phineas Gage Norman Geschwind Elkhonon Goldberg Patricia Goldman-Rakic Pasko Rakic Donald O. Hebb Kenneth Heilman Edith Kaplan Muriel Lezak Benjamin Libet Rodolfo Llinás Alexander Luria Brenda Milner Karl H
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Richard Boyd
Richard Newell Boyd (born 19 May 1942, Washington, D.C.) is an American philosopher. Biography[edit] Boyd earned his Ph.D. from MIT
MIT
in 1970. Then he spent most of his career at Cornell University,[1] though he also taught briefly at Harvard University, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and the University of California, Berkeley. He has also been a visiting professor at the University of Canterbury
University of Canterbury
in Christchurch, New Zealand, and the University of Melbourne
University of Melbourne
in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. His co-edited book The Philosophy of Science (ISBN 0-262-52156-3) is used in undergraduate and graduate philosophy courses
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Éditions Hermann
Éditions Hermann (French: [ɛʁman]) is a French publishing house founded in 1876 by the French professor of mathematics Arthur Hermann. It publishes books on science and the arts. References[edit]Historique des éditions HermannExternal links[edit]Official website (in French)This publishing-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about an organization in France
France
is a stub
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Philosophical Realism
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme
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