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Schwabacher
The German word SCHWABACHER (pronounced ) refers to a specific blackletter typeface which evolved from Gothic Textualis (Textura) under the influence of Humanist type design in Italy during the 15th century. Schwabacher
Schwabacher
typesetting was the most common typeface in Germany, until it was replaced by Fraktur
Fraktur
from the mid 16th century onwards. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Characteristics * 3 History * 4 Samples * 5 Notes and references * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term derives from the Franconian town of Schwabach , where in 1529 the Articles of Schwabach , a Lutheran creed, were adopted. They became the basis of the 1530 Confessio Augustana and possibly also promoted the use of Schwabacher
Schwabacher
types
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Apocalypse (Dürer)
The APOCALYPSE, properly APOCALYPSE WITH PICTURES (Latin : Apocalypsis cum Figuris) is a famous series of fifteen woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer of scenes from the Book of Revelation , published in 1498, which rapidly brought him fame across Europe. The series was probably cut on pear wood blocks and drew on theological advice, particularly from Johannes Pirckheimer, the father of Dürer's friend Willibald Pirckheimer . Work on the series started during Dürer's first trip to Italy (1494–95), and the set was published simultaneously in Latin and German at Nuremberg in 1498, at a time when much of Europe anticipated a possible Last Judgment at 1500. The most famous print in the series is The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (ca. 1497–98), referring to Revelation 6:1–8. The layout of the cycle with the illustrations on the recto and the text on the verso suggests the privileging of the illustrations over the text
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Luther Bible
The LUTHER BIBLE is a German language
German language
Bible translation
Bible translation
from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
. The New Testament
New Testament
was first published in 1522 and the complete Bible
Bible
, containing the Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha , in 1534. The project absorbed Luther's later years. Thanks to the then recently invented printing press , the result was widely disseminated and contributed significantly to the development of today's modern High German language
German language

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Albrecht Dürer
ALBRECHT DüRER (/ˈdʊərər, ˈdjʊərər/ ; German: ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528) was a painter , printmaker , and theorist of the German Renaissance
German Renaissance
. Born in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints . He was in communication with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael
Raphael
, Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, and from 1512 he was patronized by emperor Maximilian I . Dürer is commemorated by both the Lutheran and Episcopal Churches
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Anton Koberger
ANTON KOBERGER (c. 1440/1445 – 3 October 1513) was the German goldsmith , printer and publisher who printed and published the Nuremberg Chronicle , a landmark of incunabula , and was a successful bookseller of works from other printers. He established in 1470 the first printing house in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
. Anton Koberger
Anton Koberger
was born to an established Nuremberg
Nuremberg
family of bakers, and makes his first appearance in 1464 in the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
list of citizens. In 1470 he married Ursula Ingram and after her death he remarried another member of the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
patriciate, Margarete Holzschuher, in 1491. In all he fathered twenty-five children, of whom thirteen survived to adulthood. Koberger was the godfather of Albrecht Dürer , whose family lived on the same street
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Augsburg
AUGSBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Bavarian : Augschburg) is a city in Swabia , Bavaria
Bavaria
, Germany. It was a Free Imperial City for over 500 years, and is notable for the Augsburg Confession . It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben . Augsburg
Augsburg
is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg
Augsburg
. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria
Bavaria
(after Munich
Munich
and Nuremberg
Nuremberg
) with a population of 286,000 citizens
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Free Imperial City Of Nuremberg
The IMPERIAL CITY OF NUREMBERG (German : Reichsstadt Nürnberg) was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire . After Nuremberg
Nuremberg
gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and considerable territory from Bavaria in the Landshut War of Succession , it grew to become one of the largest and most important Imperial cities, the 'unofficial capital ' of the Empire, particularly because Imperial Diets (Reichstage) and courts met at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Castle . The Diets of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
were an important part of the administrative structure of the Empire
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Nazi Party
Hitler Youth * Deutsches Jungvolk * League of German Girls PARAMILITARY WINGS Sturmabteilung Schutzstaffel SPORTS BODY
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Martin Bormann
MARTIN BORMANN (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery
Nazi Party Chancellery
. He gained immense power within the Third Reich by using his position as Adolf Hitler 's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate. He served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss (later commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
) in the murder of Walther Kadow . Bormann joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel (SS) in 1937
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Umlaut (diacritic)
The DIAERESIS (UK : /daɪˈɪrᵻsᵻs/ , US : /daɪˈɛrᵻsᵻs/ dy-ERR-i-sis ; plural: DIAERESES), also spelled DIæRESIS or DIERESIS and also known as the TRéMA (also: TREMA) or the UMLAUT, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel . When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle : ï. The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is not pronounced as part of a digraph or diphthong . The umlaut (/ˈʊmlaʊt/ UUM-lowt ), in contrast, indicates a sound shift . These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older. Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode
Unicode
, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identical, e.g
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Bastarda
BASTARDA (or bastard or lettre bâtarde in French) was a blackletter script used in France, the Burgundian Netherlands and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Burgundian variant of script can be seen as the court script of the Dukes of Burgundy and was used to produce some of the most magnificent manuscripts of the 15th century. The early printers produced regional versions in type which were used especially to print texts in the vernacular languages, more rarely for Latin texts. The earliest bastarda type was produced by Gutenberg in 1454–55. The main variety was the one used in France, which was also found in Geneva, Antwerp and London. Another local variety was found in the Netherlands; Caxton 's first types were a rather poor copy of this. The French lettre bâtarde passed out of use by the mid-16th century but the German variety developed into the national Fraktur type which remained in use until the mid-twentieth century
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Max Amann
MAX AMANN (24 November 1891 – 30 March 1957) was a German Nazi official with the honorary rank of SS - Obergruppenführer , politician and journalist. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Sources * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYAmann was born in Munich on 24 November 1891. During the First World War he was Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's superior. He served as Feldwebel (equivalent to the US Army Staff Sergeant ) in the Royal Bavarian 16th Infantry Regiment. He is credited as being one of very few actual friends of Hitler. He joined the NSDAP
NSDAP
in October 1921, as the Party's business manager. After 1922, he also led the Nazis' publishing house, Eher Verlag , which, among other things, published the SS magazine Das Schwarze Korps
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Incunable
An INCUNABLE, or sometimes INCUNABULUM (plural INCUNABLES or INCUNABULA, respectively), is a book , pamphlet, or broadside (such as the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 ) that was printed —not handwritten —before the year 1501 in Europe
Europe
. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of "incunabula", Latin
Latin
for "swaddling clothes " or "cradle ", which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything". A former term for "incunable" is "FIFTEENER", referring to the 15th century
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Reichsleiter
REICHSLEITER (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer. Reichsleiter also served as a paramilitary rank in the Nazi Party and was the highest position attainable in any Nazi organisation. The Reichsleiter reported directly to Adolf Hitler . The Reichsleiter formed part of the Reichsleitung of the NSDAP which was originally located in the "Brown House " in Munich
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