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School Of Names
The LOGICIANS or SCHOOL OF NAMES (Chinese : 名家; pinyin : Míngjiā) was a school of Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period
Warring States period
in 479–221 BCE. It is also sometimes called the SCHOOL OF FORMS AND NAMES (Chinese : 形名家; pinyin : Xíngmíngjiā; Wade–Giles : Hsing2-ming2-chia1). One of the few surviving lines from the school, "a one-foot stick, every day take away half of it, in a myriad ages it will not be exhausted," is an independent formulation of Zeno\'s paradoxes . However, some of their other aphorisms seem contradictory or unclear when taken out of context, for example, "Dogs are not hounds." Their philosophy is often considered to be akin to those of the sophists or of the dialecticians
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Zhuangzi (book)
The ZHUANGZI (pronounced ; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist
Daoist
sage. Named for its traditional author, "Master Zhuang" (Zhuangzi ), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Daoism —along with the Tao
Tao
Te Ching —and is generally considered the most important of all Daoist
Daoist
writings. The Zhuangzi consists of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature. Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and of freedom from the human world and its conventions. The fables and anecdotes in the text attempt to illustrate the falseness of human distinctions between good and bad, large and small, life and death, and human and nature
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Joseph Needham
NOEL JOSEPH TERENCE MONTGOMERY NEEDHAM CH FRS FBA (/ˈniːdəm/ ; 9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology . He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1941, and a fellow of the British Academy in 1971. In 1992, the Queen conferred on him the Companionship of Honour , and the Royal Society
Royal Society
noted he was the only living person to hold these three titles
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Science And Civilisation In China
SCIENCE AND CIVILISATION IN CHINA (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist , historian and sinologist Sir Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995). They deal with the history of science and technology in China . To date there have been seven volumes in twenty-seven books. The series was on the Modern Library Board's 100 Best Nonfiction books of the 20th century. In 1954, Needham—along with an international team of collaborators—initiated the project to study the science, technology, and civilisation of ancient China. This project produced a series of volumes published by Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. The project is still continuing under the guidance of the Publications Board of the Needham Research Institute (NRI), chaired by Christopher Cullen
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Theories Of Humor
There are many THEORIES OF HUMOR which attempt to explain what humor is, what social functions it serves, and what would be considered humorous. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of humor, there are psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider humor to be very healthy behavior; there are spiritual theories , which consider humor to be an inexplicable mystery, very much like a mystical experience . Although various classical theories of humor and laughter may be found, in contemporary academic literature, three theories of humor appear repeatedly: relief theory, superiority theory, and incongruity theory. Among current humor researchers, there is no consensus about which of these three theories of humor is most viable
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Philosophy Of Futility
PHILOSOPHY OF FUTILITY is a phrase coined in 1928 by Columbia University marketing professor Paul Nystrom to describe an increasingly prevalent outlook which, he believed, induced a greater demand for fashionable products. The growth of industrialization had brought about a narrowing of interests, contacts, and achievements for many people in the Western world
Western world
. Such conditions of life, Nystrom observed, encourage a tendency to become quickly bored and, consequently, a continual appetite for newness and change and a greater interest in goods in which fashion dominates, such as apparel, automobiles, and home furnishings. The following is a quotation from Nystrom's Economics of Fashion (1928), often cited by historians and analysts of marketing, consumerism , and commercialism : One's outlook on life and its purposes may greatly modify one's attitude toward goods in which fashion is prominent
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Dialectician
A DIALECTICIAN is a philosopher who views the world in terms of complementary opposites and the interactions thereof. In popular usage, the central feature of dialectic is the concept of "thesis, antithesis, synthesis " - when an idea or phenomenon (thesis) arises, it carries within itself the seed of its opposite (antithesis), and the interplay of these polarities leads to a synthesis which is somehow beyond the scope of either polarity alone. In turn, the synthesis is now itself a new thesis, and the entire process can begin again. Dialecticians sometimes refer to this process as "the negation of the negation," meaning that as soon as the contradiction between thesis and antithesis is resolved by synthesis, the fact that a new thesis has emerged gives rise to a new antithesis and therefore another contradiction
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Warring States Period
The WARRING STATES PERIOD (Chinese : 戰國時代; pinyin : Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state 's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian 's choice of 475 BC is generally the most often cited and popularly accepted one. The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty , though the Chinese sovereign , known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states
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Pain (philosophy)
PHILOSOPHY OF PAIN may be about suffering in general or more specifically about physical pain . The experience of pain is, due to its seeming universality, a very good portal through which to view various aspects of human life. Discussions in philosophy of mind concerning qualia has given rise to a body of knowledge called philosophy of pain, which is about pain in the narrow sense of physical pain , and which must be distinguished from philosophical works concerning pain in the broad sense of suffering . This article covers both topics. CONTENTS * 1 Historical views of pain * 2 The individuality of pain * 3 Pain
Pain
and meaning * 4 Pain
Pain
and theories of mind * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORICAL VIEWS OF PAINTwo near contemporaries in the 18th and 19th centuries, Jeremy Bentham and the Marquis de Sade had very different views on these matters
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Philosophy Of Psychiatry
The PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHIATRY explores philosophical questions relating to psychiatry and mental illness . The philosopher of science and medicine Dominic Murphy identifies three areas of exploration in the philosophy of psychiatry. The first concerns the examination of psychiatry as a science , using the tools of the philosophy of science more broadly. The second entails the examination of the concepts employed in discussion of mental illness, including the experience of mental illness, and the normative questions it raises. The third area concerns the links and discontinuities between the philosophy of mind and psychopathology . SEE ALSO * Philosophy of psychology REFERENCES * ^ Murphy, Dominic (Spring 2015). "Philosophy of Psychiatry". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , edited by Edward N
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Philosophy Of Perception
The PHILOSOPHY OF PERCEPTION is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data , in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world. Any explicit account of perception requires a commitment to one of a variety of ontological or metaphysical views. Philosophers distinguish internalist accounts, which assume that perceptions of objects, and knowledge or beliefs about them, are aspects of an individual's mind, and externalist accounts, which state that they constitute real aspects of the world external to the individual. The position of naïve realism —the 'everyday' impression of physical objects constituting what is perceived—is to some extent contradicted by the occurrence of perceptual illusions and hallucinations and the relativity of perceptual experience as well as certain insights in science. Realist conceptions include phenomenalism and direct and indirect realism
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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